Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0013560
UniProt IDP09769
Primary gene name(s)FGR
Synonym gene name(s)SRC2
Protein nameTyrosine-protein kinase Fgr
Protein functionNon-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that transmits signals from cell surface receptors devoid of kinase activity and contributes to the regulation of immune responses, including neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage and mast cell functions, cytoskeleton remodeling in response to extracellular stimuli, phagocytosis, cell adhesion and migration. Promotes mast cell degranulation, release of inflammatory cytokines and IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Acts downstream of receptors that bind the Fc region of immunoglobulins, such as MS4A2/FCER1B, FCGR2A and/or FCGR2B. Acts downstream of ITGB1 and ITGB2, and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading and adhesion. Depending on the context, activates or inhibits cellular responses. Functions as negative regulator of ITGB2 signaling, phagocytosis and SYK activity in monocytes. Required for normal ITGB1 and ITGB2 signaling, normal cell spreading and adhesion in neutrophils and macrophages. Functions as positive regulator of cell migration and regulates cytoskeleton reorganization via RAC1 activation. Phosphorylates SYK, in vitro and promotes SYK-dependent activation of AKT1 and MAP kinase signaling. Phosphorylates PLD2 in antigen-stimulated mast cells, leading to PLD2 activation and the production of the signaling molecules lysophosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. Promotes activation of PIK3R1. Phosphorylates FASLG, and thereby regulates its ubiquitination and subsequent internalization. Phosphorylates ABL1. Promotes phosphorylation of CBL, CTTN, PIK3R1, PTK2/FAK1, PTK2B/PYK2 and VAV2. Phosphorylates HCLS1 that has already been phosphorylated by SYK, but not unphosphorylated HCLS1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10739672, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17164290, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1737799, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7519620}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000305};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000305};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000305}. Cell membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein;
Cytoplasmic side. Cell projection, ruffle membrane. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Mitochondrion inner membrane {ECO:0000250}. Mitochondrion intermembrane space {ECO:0000250}. Note=Detected in mitochondrial intermembrane space and at inner membranes, By similarity. Colocalizes with actin fibers at membrane ruffles. Detected at plasma membrane lipid rafts. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P09769
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell differentiation [GO:0030154];
cell migration [GO:0016477];
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium [GO:0050830];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
immune response-regulating cell surface receptor signaling pathway [GO:0002768];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
integrin-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0007229];
peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation [GO:0038083];
peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation [GO:0018108];
positive regulation of cell migration [GO:0030335];
positive regulation of cytokine secretion [GO:0050715];
positive regulation of mast cell degranulation [GO:0043306];
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity [GO:0043552];
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling [GO:0014068];
protein autophosphorylation [GO:0046777];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0042127];
regulation of cell shape [GO:0008360];
regulation of innate immune response [GO:0045088];
regulation of phagocytosis [GO:0050764];
regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0045859];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway [GO:0007169]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
Fc-gamma receptor I complex binding [GO:0034988];
immunoglobulin receptor binding [GO:0034987];
non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0004715];
phosphotyrosine binding [GO:0001784];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
protein tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0004713]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane [GO:0031234];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial intermembrane space [GO:0005758];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
ruffle membrane [GO:0032587]
Protein-protein interaction108559
Phylogenetic treeP09769
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.28562 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 24162774
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 23867815

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
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