Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0013250
UniProt IDP49279
Primary gene name(s)SLC11A1
Synonym gene name(s)LSH, NRAMP, NRAMP1
Protein nameNatural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1
Protein functionDivalent transition metal, iron and manganese transporter involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. Macrophage-specific membrane transport function. Controls natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites. Pathogen resistance involves sequestration of Fe(2+ and Mn(2+, cofactors of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic catalases and superoxide dismutases, not only to protect the macrophage against its own generation of reactive oxygen species, but to deny the cations to the pathogen for synthesis of its protective enzymes.
Subcellular locationMembrane {ECO:0000305};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000305}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P49279
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of protein kinase activity [GO:0032147];
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen [GO:0048002];
cadmium ion transmembrane transport [GO:0070574];
cell redox homeostasis [GO:0045454];
cellular cadmium ion homeostasis [GO:0006876];
cellular iron ion homeostasis [GO:0006879];
defense response to bacterium [GO:0042742];
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium [GO:0050829];
defense response to protozoan [GO:0042832];
divalent metal ion export [GO:0070839];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
interleukin-2 production [GO:0032623];
interleukin-3 production [GO:0032632];
iron ion homeostasis [GO:0055072];
iron ion transport [GO:0006826];
L-arginine import [GO:0043091];
macrophage activation [GO:0042116];
manganese ion transport [GO:0006828];
MHC class II biosynthetic process [GO:0045342];
mRNA stabilization [GO:0048255];
multicellular organismal iron ion homeostasis [GO:0060586];
negative regulation of cytokine production [GO:0001818];
nitrite transport [GO:0015707];
phagocytosis [GO:0006909];
positive regulation of cytokine production [GO:0001819];
positive regulation of dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation [GO:0002606];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production [GO:0032729];
positive regulation of phagocytosis [GO:0050766];
positive regulation of T-helper 1 type immune response [GO:0002827];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
protein import into nucleus, translocation [GO:0000060];
respiratory burst [GO:0045730];
response to bacterium [GO:0009617];
response to interferon-gamma [GO:0034341];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
T cell cytokine production [GO:0002369];
T cell proliferation involved in immune response [GO:0002309];
vacuolar acidification [GO:0007035];
wound healing [GO:0042060]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
manganese ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO:0005384];
metal ion:proton antiporter activity [GO:0051139];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
transition metal ion transmembrane transporter activity [GO:0046915]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell outer membrane [GO:0009279];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
late endosome [GO:0005770];
late endosome membrane [GO:0031902];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
phagocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030670];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
tertiary granule membrane [GO:0070821]
Protein-protein interactionunknown
Phylogenetic treeP49279
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZA0.1683716177640570.5412704021338431
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISU0.4026129150179510.3386051969795780.83759035206982
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.2820871127071250.1958565239714180.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.569453 0.0366958
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04978 Mineral absorption - Homo sapiens (human)