Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0012568
UniProt IDQ68CP4
Primary gene name(s)HGSNAT
Synonym gene name(s)TMEM76
Protein nameHeparan-alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase
Protein functionLysosomal acetyltransferase that acetylates the non-reducing terminal alpha-glucosamine residue of intralysosomal heparin or heparan sulfate, converting it into a substrate for luminal alpha-N-acetyl glucosaminidase. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16960811, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17033958, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19823584, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20650889}.
Subcellular locationLysosome membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16960811, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17033958, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17897319};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16960811, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17033958, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17897319}. Note=Colocalizes with the lysosomal marker LAMP2. The signal peptide is not cleaved upon translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum;
the precursor is probably targeted to the lysosomes via the adapter protein complex-mediated pathway that involves tyrosine- and/or dileucine-based conserved amino acid motifs in the last C-terminus 16-amino acid domain.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q68CP4
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
glycosaminoglycan catabolic process [GO:0006027];
lysosomal transport [GO:0007041];
protein oligomerization [GO:0051259]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
heparan-alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase activity [GO:0015019];
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups [GO:0016746]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
lysosomal membrane [GO:0005765]
Protein-protein interactionunknown
Phylogenetic treeQ68CP4
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.5283615213210020.1076883377464610.186969084957339
AZA vs. DISU-0.1604968126468890.5267617913881090.940949166421897
AZA vs. IL7-0.1768910056474380.3592313441346310.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2698450779141040.2729421873275610.647416291388773
DISU vs. CD30.3548258023950240.3283102563220310.461354414449361
DISU vs. IL7-0.02528425003859250.920244546723210.985326395757143
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1082044576386420.7142359041465770.915550590566598
DMSO vs. AZA0.02474656630910450.8830355268211361
DMSO vs. CD30.5374794733247530.09379077013808590.162241124369074
DMSO vs. DISU0.1820222631029890.4566956634767370.89117571386659
DMSO vs. IL7-0.193652904592220.2832576183429140.774015806185545
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3003657030415610.2066886065660860.547106897474529
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.402266907697430.5189493126303740.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.3076675226514240.06334972082115630.977502181625558
IL7 vs. CD30.3597647278357280.2636366377692270.397022184143826
SAHA vs. CD30.2325601776069690.5140589044082840.622088467793531
SAHA vs. IL7-0.09765946361428390.6906508651564730.855291391394535
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.698855 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00531 Glycosaminoglycan degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)