Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0011994
UniProt IDP40933
Primary gene name(s)IL15
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameInterleukin-15
Protein functionCytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Stimulation by IL-15 requires interaction of IL-15 with components of IL-2R, including IL-2R beta and probably IL-2R gamma but not IL-2R alpha.
Subcellular locationIsoform IL15-S48AA: Secreted.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform IL15-S21AA: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=IL15-S21AA is not secreted, but rather is stored intracellularly, appearing in the nucleus and cytoplasmic components.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P40933
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aging [GO:0007568];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
cell maturation [GO:0048469];
cellular response to vitamin D [GO:0071305];
extrathymic T cell selection [GO:0045062];
hyaluronan metabolic process [GO:0030212];
immune response [GO:0006955];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
lymph node development [GO:0048535];
natural killer cell differentiation [GO:0001779];
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:0048662];
NK T cell proliferation [GO:0001866];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of immune response [GO:0050778];
positive regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050729];
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production [GO:0032740];
positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation [GO:0032825];
positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation [GO:0032819];
positive regulation of protein O-linked glycosylation [GO:1904100];
positive regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042102];
positive regulation of tissue remodeling [GO:0034105];
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein [GO:0042517];
regulation of defense response to virus by host [GO:0050691];
regulation of T cell differentiation [GO:0045580];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
skeletal muscle atrophy [GO:0014732];
tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein [GO:0042506]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cytokine activity [GO:0005125]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell surface [GO:0009986];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
endosome [GO:0005768];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction109813
Phylogenetic treeP40933
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.878865116505292.6924025242625e-072.3634182204825e-06
AZA vs. DISU1.18545974484029.29686309888433e-050.0155712127058425
AZA vs. IL70.3157832527557150.249689232802790.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA1.055494337930210.0004701206571836590.0123675371490165
DISU vs. CD3-0.7034619999227890.06411958741133820.131824694576993
DISU vs. IL7-0.8809889180441740.002660511348773880.0507044356292872
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1334729405119170.678016943037360.903243467560864
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-1.716063543795291.11650685730158e-067.94904338622321e-06
DMSO vs. DISU-1.01636392205610.0004133337786861310.0391757235522013
DMSO vs. IL70.1493368690885790.5573985377872840.900949551185115
DMSO vs. SAHA0.8735315205018520.002323660836123010.0325766441499627
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1539773767346730.8110660740509440.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency3.81042686988819e-050.9999026778419050.999902677841905
IL7 vs. CD3-1.551664524238361.03470226781033e-057.96070629194386e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8512775257126370.02277927186865340.0513590106314492
SAHA vs. IL70.7287105428444270.01248485646396090.0732282981858937
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.848481 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2XQB X-ray 2.6Å A=49-162.
2Z3Q X-ray 1.8Å A/C=49-162.
2Z3R X-ray 2.0Å A/C/E/G/I/K/M/O=49-162.
4GS7 X-ray 2.3Å A=49-162.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
matrix inhibits 16427155
matrix enhances 16427155
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 modulates 12089333
Nef interacts with 17431094
matrix upregulates 12542496
capsid upregulated by 24999042
Tat upregulates 15857508
integrase enhanced by 24049167
Nef upregulates 10388525

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04630 Jak-STAT signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04668 TNF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04672 Intestinal immune network for IgA production - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)