Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0011982
UniProt IDP60568
Primary gene name(s)IL2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameInterleukin-2
Protein functionProduced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P60568
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adaptive immune response [GO:0002250];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:0097192];
immune response [GO:0006955];
MAPK cascade [GO:0000165];
natural killer cell activation [GO:0030101];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of B cell apoptotic process [GO:0002903];
negative regulation of heart contraction [GO:0045822];
negative regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050728];
negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation [GO:0050672];
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation [GO:0001933];
positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation [GO:0042104];
positive regulation of B cell proliferation [GO:0030890];
positive regulation of cell growth [GO:0030307];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration [GO:0007204];
positive regulation of dendritic spine development [GO:0060999];
positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion [GO:0051024];
positive regulation of inflammatory response [GO:0050729];
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production [GO:0032729];
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production [GO:0032740];
positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes [GO:0048304];
positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation [GO:0045591];
positive regulation of tissue remodeling [GO:0034105];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein [GO:0042523];
protein kinase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007205];
regulation of T cell homeostatic proliferation [GO:0046013];
response to ethanol [GO:0045471];
T cell differentiation [GO:0030217]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
carbohydrate binding [GO:0030246];
cytokine activity [GO:0005125];
glycosphingolipid binding [GO:0043208];
growth factor activity [GO:0008083];
interleukin-2 receptor binding [GO:0005134];
kinase activator activity [GO:0019209];
Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005088]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615]
Protein-protein interaction109773
Phylogenetic treeP60568
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      Negatively associated
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD34.6814158211459600
AZA vs. DISU-0.3315872339979750.2127397997167470.801649999689472
AZA vs. IL7-0.5968218107899610.004833689975722310.214288850011948
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6150339555846980.02534238449171460.179432176527997
DISU vs. CD3-5.0259127055774400
DISU vs. IL7-0.2742966365688190.3036499627801880.686697148051504
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2843421477218590.3873815816486380.753611438883002
DMSO vs. AZA-0.2627527080443090.1606221365570991
DMSO vs. CD3-4.9535006581218500
DMSO vs. DISU0.06739394505935830.7931491102769610.975412310272008
DMSO vs. IL7-0.3285844360352070.1006718507325020.577706465869787
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3605626291473450.192150346309210.52778791276357
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-1.087872866585640.1275119560340820.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.242288995989870.2027825269448110.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-5.2665778288664900
SAHA vs. CD3-5.3242279633787800
SAHA vs. IL7-0.02766576757754380.9286354770147320.973588202846019
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.751294 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02555 SP4160 experimental unknown unknown
DB02581 5-[2,3-Dichloro-4-(5-{1-[2-(2-Guanidino-4-Methyl-Pentanoylamino)-Acetyl]-Piperidin-4-Yl}-1-Methyl-1h-Pyrazol-3-Yl)-Phenoxymethyl]-Furan-2-Carboxylic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB03453 (R)??[2-[1-(aminoiminomethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-1-oxoethyl]-4-(phenylethynyl)-l-phenylalanine methylester experimental unknown unknown
DB03957 SP2456 experimental unknown unknown
DB04278 2-[2-(2-Cyclohexyl-2-Guanidino-Acetylamino)-Acetylamino]-N-(3-Mercapto-Propyl)-Propionamide experimental unknown unknown
DB05299 keyhole limpet hemocyanin investigational unknown unknown
DB05304 WX-G250 investigational unknown unknown
DB05676 Apremilast approved, investigational unknown unknown
DB03372 3-Mercapto-1-(1,3,4,9-Tetrahydro-B-Carbolin-2-Yl)-Propan-1-One experimental unknown unknown
DB03455 (1H-indol-3-yl)-(2-mercapto-ethoxyimino)-acetic acid experimental unknown unknown
DB00852 Pseudoephedrine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1ILM Model - 2=26-153.
1ILN Model - 2=26-153.
1IRL NMR - A=21-153.
1M47 X-ray 1.9Å A=21-153.
1M48 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=21-153.
1M49 X-ray 2.0Å A/B=21-153.
1M4A X-ray 2.1Å A=21-153.
1M4B X-ray 2.1Å A=21-153.
1M4C X-ray 2.4Å A/B=21-153.
1NBP X-ray 2.2Å A=21-153.
1PW6 X-ray 2.6Å A/B=21-153.
1PY2 X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=21-152.
1QVN X-ray 2.7Å A/B/C/D=21-152.
1Z92 X-ray 2.8Å A=21-153.
2B5I X-ray 2.3Å A=21-153.
2ERJ X-ray 3.0Å D/H=21-153.
3INK X-ray 2.5Å C/D=21-153.
3QAZ X-ray 3.8Å A/D/G/J/M/P/S/V/Y/b/e/h=21-153.
3QB1 X-ray 3.1Å A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=21-153.
4NEJ X-ray 1.9Å A=24-153.
4NEM X-ray 1.9Å A=24-153.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
matrix inhibits 18570590
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 8706326
matrix upregulates 12542496
Nef inhibits 1527859
205260921176845
232157668102828
capsid upregulated by 24999042
25341640
Tat upregulates 24841128
7695626
7999066
8207793
9045614
10207088
11114167
11385624
18539368
21085635
23772625
capsid enhances 25240755
integrase enhanced by 24049167
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 downregulates 1832084
1905933
7697734
233831081832084
9534962
Tat activated by 11689614
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibits 12605694
16393999
capsid induces release of 19135418
Nef downregulates 8598486
8765022
15638726
23227982
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 23023090
250363647589092
Asp induces release of 25809376
Tat downregulates 1394441
7734194
7983746
11254713
1760488317604883
8095514
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 1346976
1888898
1905933
2315327
7957556
9007200
11350667
17177332
2376231725234720
7957556
8706326
18670216
Nef interacts with 10196292
19013323
23215766
matrix modulates 21482826
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 enhanced by 2552026
18670216
capsid upregulates 17332243
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor downregulates 7523014
7642615
9045910
9712080
matrix enhances 9517986
12105273
12542496
Nef induces release of 25056899
Vpr downregulates 26116899
9334723
19275586
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibited by 2842093
9226175
Nef upregulates 10393966
16354571
18991615
20012528
21176845
23986795
2418757623224761
23224761
23986795
2562668225626682
8769094
10618429
10985305
18539368
20535218
21394196
23215766
25056899

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04151 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04630 Jak-STAT signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04658 Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04659 Th17 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04672 Intestinal immune network for IgA production - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04940 Type I diabetes mellitus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05162 Measles - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05320 Autoimmune thyroid disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05321 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05330 Allograft rejection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05332 Graft-versus-host disease - Homo sapiens (human)
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