Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0011912
UniProt IDP32298
Primary gene name(s)GRK4
Synonym gene name(s)GPRK2L, GPRK4
Protein nameG protein-coupled receptor kinase 4
Protein functionSpecifically phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors. GRK4-alpha can phosphorylate rhodopsin and its activity is inhibited by calmodulin; the other three isoforms do not phosphorylate rhodopsin and do not interact with calmodulin. GRK4-alpha and GRK4-gamma phosphorylate DRD3. Phosphorylates ADRB2. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19520868, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8626439}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cell cortex. Note=Both at the cell surface and dispersed in the cytoplasm under basal conditions. Receptor stimulation results in the internalization of GRK4 to the perinuclear area, where colocalization with DRD3 is observed strongly at 5 and 15 minutes. DRD3 and GRK4 colocalize in lipid rafts of renal proximal tubule cells.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P32298
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
G-protein coupled receptor internalization [GO:0002031];
receptor internalization [GO:0031623];
regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway [GO:0008277];
regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway [GO:0022400];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
G-protein coupled receptor kinase activity [GO:0004703];
rhodopsin kinase activity [GO:0050254]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
dendrite [GO:0030425];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
photoreceptor disc membrane [GO:0097381]
Protein-protein interaction109126
Phylogenetic treeP32298
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.845392029580389.43028026778592e-089.15806599201478e-07
AZA vs. DISU0.09206831644268180.7361793419339040.974560663114398
AZA vs. IL7-0.1512605294300990.4937845958176010.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.9856478838003590.0001677284182106660.00547805902145046
DISU vs. CD3-1.766090969152873.04210847779096e-062.58639273515065e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.2491816319572290.35848935741340.737375776095922
DISU vs. SAHA0.8946691107290480.003430733336005080.0493744576775072
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02255286797601170.9100075999659611
DMSO vs. CD3-1.877927086157982.462996850916e-082.42358246629977e-07
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1155507716728370.6600484633542350.95067670292921
DMSO vs. IL7-0.120826460637950.5610383627435750.901476584775037
DMSO vs. SAHA1.000419110576077.50289827770034e-050.0028554590894753
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.01131321484717160.9856017336735540.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03632517587294360.8469018660813470.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.985963753328425.24267573798198e-098.29200959061935e-08
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8847985270388560.01431777652112210.0347174404140483
SAHA vs. IL71.131680803948861.5496916618396e-050.000435821867734518
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.134936 0.574228
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4YHJ X-ray 2.6Å A/B=1-578.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05032 Morphine addiction - Homo sapiens (human)