Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0010623
UniProt IDQ9NPB6
Primary gene name(s)PARD6A
Synonym gene name(s)PAR6A
Protein namePartitioning defective 6 homolog alpha
Protein functionAdapter protein involved in asymmetrical cell division and cell polarization processes. Probably involved in the formation of epithelial tight junctions. Association with PARD3 may prevent the interaction of PARD3 with F11R/JAM1, thereby preventing tight junction assembly. The PARD6-PARD3 complex links GTP-bound Rho small GTPases to atypical protein kinase C proteins, PubMed:10873802. Regulates centrosome organization and function. Essential for the centrosomal recruitment of key proteins that control centrosomal microtubule organization, PubMed:20719959. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10873802, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20719959}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Cell membrane. Cell projection, ruffle. Cell junction, tight junction. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriolar satellite {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20719959}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20719959}. Note=Colocalizes with GTP-bound CDC42 or RAC1 at membrane ruffles and with PARD3 and PRKCI at epithelial tight junctions. Recruited to the centrosome by a microtubule and dynein-dynactin-dependent mechanism. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20719959}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9NPB6
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
bicellular tight junction assembly [GO:0070830];
cell-cell junction maintenance [GO:0045217];
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
cell division [GO:0051301];
centrosome organization [GO:0051297];
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation [GO:0001933];
positive regulation of protein localization to centrosome [GO:1904781];
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007179];
viral process [GO:0016032];
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway [GO:0060071]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTP-dependent protein binding [GO:0030742];
Rho GTPase binding [GO:0017048];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
axonal growth cone [GO:0044295];
bicellular tight junction [GO:0005923];
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
ruffle [GO:0001726]
Protein-protein interaction119157
Phylogenetic treeQ9NPB6
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.4137922802927810.3747510508121580.496442232341722
AZA vs. DISU-0.2479385362554170.3883053016507140.901203097318377
AZA vs. IL7-0.0818724692492650.7202546059656890.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.0008713426516885540.9972878101306060.998999189798904
DISU vs. CD30.1548855840113490.7530581486285390.828199605919328
DISU vs. IL70.1557846322094340.6000521372675950.87679695442698
DISU vs. SAHA0.2506320312295150.406096118360440.763664760862142
DMSO vs. AZA-0.06972955912520780.7071472320266081
DMSO vs. CD30.3301161548718670.450684363508230.562561930255322
DMSO vs. DISU0.1753339449851470.4928616878378920.906111920065799
DMSO vs. IL7-0.003766851448676910.984614311993980.998499429186965
DMSO vs. SAHA0.06672201630841560.7872636060363190.939630662728404
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2274720487010650.8223232977845510.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1806339299792880.3295657556463370.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.3364326088850340.4650406008908490.597371482634035
SAHA vs. CD30.3904204352305890.3880228533235930.504573681904094
SAHA vs. IL70.08080710968904590.7520443998134070.888530220092468
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.00288461 0.989598
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1WMH X-ray 1.5Å B=14-95.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 17560945

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04390 Hippo signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)