Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0010598
UniProt IDQ08999
Primary gene name(s)RBL2
Synonym gene name(s)RB2
Protein nameRetinoblastoma-like protein 2
Protein functionKey regulator of entry into cell division. Directly involved in heterochromatin formation by maintaining overall chromatin structure and, in particular, that of constitutive heterochromatin by stabilizing histone methylation. Recruits and targets histone methyltransferases KMT5B and KMT5C, leading to epigenetic transcriptional repression. Controls histone H4 'Lys-20' trimethylation. Probably acts as a transcription repressor by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes to promoters. Potent inhibitor of E2F-mediated trans-activation, associates preferentially with E2F5. Binds to cyclins A and E. Binds to and may be involved in the transforming capacity of the adenovirus E1A protein. May act as a tumor suppressor.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q08999
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
covalent chromatin modification [GO:0016569];
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest [GO:0006977];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
regulation of lipid kinase activity [GO:0043550];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
transcription factor complex [GO:0005667]
Protein-protein interaction111869
Phylogenetic treeQ08999
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-2.9610351998711200
AZA vs. DISU-0.4915508082744270.05187871733036620.508796216680507
AZA vs. IL7-0.2633197717961050.1693261597897540.939962049460495
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4806533113832470.04875882815597390.266300933196794
DISU vs. CD32.456835100451731.24166454895658e-102.98991236596988e-09
DISU vs. IL70.2190571983613720.3835963390320960.753121417320375
DISU vs. SAHA0.01224808654861440.9664316532788420.992637214624418
DMSO vs. AZA-0.04440144802043370.7898898212908651
DMSO vs. CD32.9041955420332400
DMSO vs. DISU0.4451504308543440.06782545696379690.48858969237305
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2116938461205980.2374872725785110.743226205962435
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4424664698015530.06062686902277470.282444371883226
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.04659846083188790.940568374733560.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05356763633586730.7441542969651040.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD32.705182703319352.44249065417534e-151.01141927556003e-13
SAHA vs. CD32.455896402007424.0479397611648e-119.39945334372165e-10
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2206685172710590.3637090280639220.614842423352648
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.635791 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4XI9 X-ray 3.1Å E/F/G/H=416-422.
5C1D X-ray 2.0Å C=416-422.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat inhibits 13679860
Tat binds 12196924
13679860
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 15103018

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04151 PI3K-Akt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
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