Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0010306
UniProt IDP54803
Primary gene name(s)GALC
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameGalactocerebrosidase
Protein functionHydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:8281145, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8399327}.
Subcellular locationLysosome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54803
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
carbohydrate metabolic process [GO:0005975];
galactosylceramide catabolic process [GO:0006683];
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
galactosylceramidase activity [GO:0004336]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
lysosome [GO:0005764]
Protein-protein interaction108854
Phylogenetic treeP54803
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.139588893913960.0007120856194102740.00269594434959851
AZA vs. DISU-0.01255100083970680.9606994520548360.996649735504266
AZA vs. IL7-0.1730476665939860.3749556393365050.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4634682031378340.06164206391975970.304653269352937
DISU vs. CD31.115072856085560.002604922758637880.00939617268813292
DISU vs. IL7-0.170096427035920.5025361449044970.827677524793542
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4495050556789550.126565559359150.457691459783286
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03922285035731440.8181994971399421
DMSO vs. CD31.091186541214850.0009076677506508760.00314489757671468
DMSO vs. DISU-0.02763443975945630.9104764057636620.988283279918411
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1272172169022950.4859081825304440.883275611705973
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4308296966811610.07238645943935520.314390873259516
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3057020214278590.626240150247040.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.3215302704848450.05451982096024110.91777798997986
IL7 vs. CD30.9730065675397360.003086393187908820.0111561641538009
SAHA vs. CD30.6524921358464360.06775820719829110.127432445086515
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2932545966705050.2350988146597520.475880157403129
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0686122 0.705614
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 17986221
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 19460752

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00600 Sphingolipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)