Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0009613
UniProt IDP84077
Primary gene name(s)ARF1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameADP-ribosylation factor 1
Protein functionGTP-binding protein that functions as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit, an ADP-ribosyltransferase. Involved in protein trafficking among different compartments. Modulates vesicle budding and uncoating within the Golgi complex. Deactivation induces the redistribution of the entire Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a crucial role in protein trafficking. In its GTP-bound form, its triggers the association with coat proteins with the Golgi membrane. The hydrolysis of ARF1-bound GTP, which is mediated by ARFGAPs proteins, is required for dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi membranes and vesicles. The GTP-bound form interacts with PICK1 to limit PICK1-mediated inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity; the function is linked to AMPA receptor, AMPAR trafficking, regulation of synaptic plasicity of excitatory synapses and spine shrinkage during long-term depression, LTD.
Subcellular locationGolgi apparatus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17555535}. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17555535}. Cell junction, synapse, synaptosome {ECO:0000250}. Cell junction, synapse, postsynaptic cell membrane, postsynaptic density {ECO:0000250}. Membrane {ECO:0000305};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000305}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P84077
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin filament organization [GO:0007015];
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II [GO:0019886];
cellular copper ion homeostasis [GO:0006878];
dendritic spine organization [GO:0097061];
Golgi to transport vesicle transport [GO:0055108];
long term synaptic depression [GO:0060292];
lysosomal membrane organization [GO:0097212];
phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process [GO:0006661];
positive regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis [GO:0045956];
positive regulation of dendritic spine development [GO:0060999];
positive regulation of endocytosis [GO:0045807];
positive regulation of ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport [GO:1902953];
positive regulation of late endosome to lysosome transport [GO:1902824];
positive regulation of protein secretion [GO:0050714];
positive regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transport [GO:1902307];
post-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport [GO:0006892];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation [GO:0034315];
regulation of defense response to virus by virus [GO:0050690];
regulation of phospholipid metabolic process [GO:1903725];
regulation of receptor internalization [GO:0002090];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264];
synaptic vesicle budding [GO:0070142];
very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly [GO:0034379]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GDP binding [GO:0019003];
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
magnesium ion binding [GO:0000287];
phospholipase D activator activity [GO:1990583];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
receptor signaling protein activity [GO:0005057]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell leading edge [GO:0031252];
COPI-coated vesicle [GO:0030137];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
late endosome [GO:0005770];
neuron projection [GO:0043005];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
postsynaptic density [GO:0014069];
postsynaptic membrane [GO:0045211];
sarcomere [GO:0030017];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction106870
Phylogenetic treeP84077
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.2394635158904320.4640517640963940.583627185285452
AZA vs. DISU0.09947825129254220.6942388440040010.96870299556788
AZA vs. IL7-0.03422817486679420.8582388605690630.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2454764735040820.3135651510051570.685622437808491
DISU vs. CD3-0.1521057214332150.6758351432912840.771432602602818
DISU vs. IL7-0.1431591244129040.5699172923772570.861794852508976
DISU vs. SAHA-0.342689841502980.2395789462484380.617846389272795
DMSO vs. AZA0.03130198035920490.8512037273415831
DMSO vs. CD3-0.2217811250151540.4877059453616490.597049412227632
DMSO vs. DISU-0.07065050138463020.771966250342480.97150326349898
DMSO vs. IL7-0.05787188652738820.7467592916519910.950434477375902
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2815118278562680.2316538702617610.578501322073737
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1988557752582330.7489769796820380.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03204209946736540.8454216484781840.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2675253718543730.4046180376689210.541839074278589
SAHA vs. CD3-0.50796584612730.1512960272884270.242633939686772
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2135298817952010.3797031589447540.630426855152904
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.800856 0.000580925
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02774 1,3-Propandiol experimental unknown unknown
DB04077 Glycerol experimental unknown unknown
DB04121 Guanosine-3&,39;-Monophosphate-5&,39;-Diphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB04137 Guanosine-5&,39;-Triphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB04315 Guanosine-5&,39;-Diphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB07348 1,6,7,8,9,11A,12,13,14,14A-DECAHYDRO-1,13-DIHYDROXY-6-METHYL-4H-CYCLOPENT[F]OXACYCLOTRIDECIN-4-ONE experimental unknown unknown
DB08231 MYRISTIC ACID experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1HUR X-ray 2.0Å A/B=2-181.
1RE0 X-ray 2.4Å A=18-181.
1U81 NMR - A=18-181.
3O47 X-ray 2.8Å A/B=11-181.
4HMY X-ray 7.0Å C=17-181.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef binds 15202998
Nef requires 21917951
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18187620
Pr55(Gag) interacts with 18439901
Nef complexes with 21917951

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04072 Phospholipase D signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05110 Vibrio cholerae infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05134 Legionellosis - Homo sapiens (human)