Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0009605
UniProt IDP61812
Primary gene name(s)TGFB2
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameTransforming growth factor beta-2
Protein functionTGF-beta 2 has suppressive effects on interleukin-2 dependent T-cell growth.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P61812
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of protein kinase activity [GO:0032147];
angiogenesis [GO:0001525];
ascending aorta morphogenesis [GO:0035910];
atrial septum morphogenesis [GO:0060413];
atrial septum primum morphogenesis [GO:0003289];
atrioventricular valve morphogenesis [GO:0003181];
axon guidance [GO:0007411];
blood vessel remodeling [GO:0001974];
cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0060317];
cardiac muscle cell proliferation [GO:0060038];
cardiac right ventricle morphogenesis [GO:0003215];
cardioblast differentiation [GO:0010002];
cartilage condensation [GO:0001502];
catagen [GO:0042637];
cell-cell junction organization [GO:0045216];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
cell death [GO:0008219];
cell growth [GO:0016049];
cell migration [GO:0016477];
cell morphogenesis [GO:0000902];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
collagen fibril organization [GO:0030199];
cranial skeletal system development [GO:1904888];
dopamine biosynthetic process [GO:0042416];
embryo development [GO:0009790];
embryonic digestive tract development [GO:0048566];
embryonic limb morphogenesis [GO:0030326];
endocardial cushion fusion [GO:0003274];
endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO:0003203];
epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0001837];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097191];
eye development [GO:0001654];
face morphogenesis [GO:0060325];
generation of neurons [GO:0048699];
glial cell migration [GO:0008347];
hair follicle development [GO:0001942];
hair follicle morphogenesis [GO:0031069];
heart development [GO:0007507];
heart morphogenesis [GO:0003007];
heart valve morphogenesis [GO:0003179];
hemopoiesis [GO:0030097];
inner ear development [GO:0048839];
kidney development [GO:0001822];
male gonad development [GO:0008584];
membranous septum morphogenesis [GO:0003149];
negative regulation of alkaline phosphatase activity [GO:0010693];
negative regulation of cartilage development [GO:0061037];
negative regulation of cell growth [GO:0030308];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO:0050680];
negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation [GO:1905006];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of immune response [GO:0050777];
negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production [GO:0010936];
negative regulation of Ras protein signal transduction [GO:0046580];
neural retina development [GO:0003407];
neural tube closure [GO:0001843];
neuron development [GO:0048666];
neuron fate commitment [GO:0048663];
neutrophil chemotaxis [GO:0030593];
odontogenesis [GO:0042476];
outflow tract septum morphogenesis [GO:0003148];
palate development [GO:0060021];
pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation [GO:0060389];
pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis [GO:0061626];
platelet degranulation [GO:0002576];
positive regulation of activation-induced cell death of T cells [GO:0070237];
positive regulation of cardioblast differentiation [GO:0051891];
positive regulation of catagen [GO:0051795];
positive regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin [GO:0033630];
positive regulation of cell cycle [GO:0045787];
positive regulation of cell division [GO:0051781];
positive regulation of cell growth [GO:0030307];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration [GO:0010634];
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0010718];
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation [GO:1905007];
positive regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly [GO:0090091];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:2001241];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of GTP binding [GO:1904426];
positive regulation of heart contraction [GO:0045823];
positive regulation of immune response [GO:0050778];
positive regulation of integrin biosynthetic process [GO:0045726];
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043525];
positive regulation of ossification [GO:0045778];
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation [GO:0010862];
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling [GO:0014068];
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus [GO:1900182];
positive regulation of protein secretion [GO:0050714];
positive regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade [GO:0032874];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
pulmonary valve morphogenesis [GO:0003184];
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0032956];
regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO:1902256];
regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production [GO:0032909];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to progesterone [GO:0032570];
response to wounding [GO:0009611];
salivary gland morphogenesis [GO:0007435];
skeletal system development [GO:0001501];
SMAD protein import into nucleus [GO:0007184];
SMAD protein signal transduction [GO:0060395];
somatic stem cell division [GO:0048103];
substantia propria of cornea development [GO:1903701];
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007179];
uterine wall breakdown [GO:0042704];
uterus development [GO:0060065];
ventricular septum morphogenesis [GO:0060412];
ventricular trabecula myocardium morphogenesis [GO:0003222];
wound healing [GO:0042060]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
beta-amyloid binding [GO:0001540];
cytokine activity [GO:0005125];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
receptor binding [GO:0005102];
receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004702];
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding [GO:0005160];
type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding [GO:0034714];
type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding [GO:0005114]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon [GO:0030424];
endosome [GO:0005768];
extracellular matrix [GO:0031012];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
platelet alpha granule lumen [GO:0031093]
Protein-protein interaction112900
Phylogenetic treeP61812
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.560668574112620.1153982585162920.197623287394337
AZA vs. DISU-0.430013781326130.5906187573837430.955158276076142
AZA vs. IL7-0.3073753785481740.6467956963731480.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.3043420543288210.7182686723530560.921167375931585
DISU vs. CD31.117173049052590.2760656824975960.405043225420359
DISU vs. IL70.1155155677067790.8676376984979250.974773759413592
DISU vs. SAHA0.7323828362727080.3942076646655740.757528295838371
DMSO vs. AZA0.03374936408816910.9627135221280831
DMSO vs. CD31.570920545978350.0791486326424190.14114277352723
DMSO vs. DISU0.4583231360141820.5350989592172010.920620730880165
DMSO vs. IL7-0.3317402661438840.5706068140832120.903436831021822
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2634482739806050.7385899791608110.924026643277682
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-2.049247050719430.07992097928648130.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.7992175467396830.1757826702469860.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.266084297117060.128446571180360.229664907165073
SAHA vs. CD31.833911487528670.09259014067949910.163562941445083
SAHA vs. IL70.6024373526306240.4225463912960880.665009845729508
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
NOTEST 2.09661 1
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1TFG X-ray 1.9Å A=303-414.
2TGI X-ray 1.8Å A=303-414.
4KXZ X-ray 2.8Å A/B/D/E=303-414.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu interacts with 24551192
Vpu activates 24551192
Tat upregulates 15857508

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04010 MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04350 TGF-beta signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04380 Osteoclast differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04390 Hippo signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05140 Leishmaniasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05144 Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05146 Amoebiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05211 Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05220 Chronic myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05321 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05410 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05414 Dilated cardiomyopathy - Homo sapiens (human)