Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0009454
UniProt IDP19320
Primary gene name(s)VCAM1
Synonym gene name(s)L1CAM
Protein nameVascular cell adhesion protein 1
Protein functionImportant in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with integrin alpha-4/beta-1, ITGA4/ITGB1 on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. The VCAM1/ITGA4/ITGB1 interaction may play a pathophysiologic role both in immune responses and in leukocyte emigration to sites of inflammation.
Subcellular locationMembrane;
Single-pass type I membrane protein.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P19320
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
acute inflammatory response [GO:0002526];
aging [GO:0007568];
amine metabolic process [GO:0009308];
B cell differentiation [GO:0030183];
calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source [GO:0035584];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell chemotaxis [GO:0060326];
cell-matrix adhesion [GO:0007160];
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor [GO:0071356];
cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus [GO:0035924];
chronic inflammatory response [GO:0002544];
extracellular matrix organization [GO:0030198];
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules [GO:0007157];
interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0060333];
leukocyte cell-cell adhesion [GO:0007159];
leukocyte tethering or rolling [GO:0050901];
membrane to membrane docking [GO:0022614];
positive regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042102];
regulation of immune response [GO:0050776];
response to ethanol [GO:0045471];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to ionizing radiation [GO:0010212];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
response to nicotine [GO:0035094];
response to nutrient [GO:0007584];
response to zinc ion [GO:0010043];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cell adhesion molecule binding [GO:0050839];
integrin binding [GO:0005178];
primary amine oxidase activity [GO:0008131]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
alpha9-beta1 integrin-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 complex [GO:0071065];
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
cell surface [GO:0009986];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
external side of plasma membrane [GO:0009897];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
filopodium [GO:0030175];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
microvillus [GO:0005902];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
podosome [GO:0002102];
sarcolemma [GO:0042383]
Protein-protein interaction113255
Phylogenetic treeP19320
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD34.498146624830165.89938897732623e-097.30612906049802e-08
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-4.70170419933111.06725739357216e-123.80327138314581e-11
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-4.021999612560751.93830074213253e-092.37017050975864e-08
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.5112464908045490.6487961677642110.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1250472968488470.8702913599961360.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-4.571614946944988.52901193659772e-066.71320088356853e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-3.58472061564815.49611778311032e-086.16727438506869e-07
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.055755 0.842751
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01136 Carvedilol approved, investigational unknown inhibitor
DB05399 AGI-1067 investigational unknown unknown
DB00898 Ethanol approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1IJ9 X-ray 3.0Å A=25-220.
1VCA X-ray 1.8Å A/B=25-226.
1VSC X-ray 1.9Å A/B=25-219.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04064 NF-kappa B signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04514 Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04668 TNF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05143 African trypanosomiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05144 Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)