Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0008758
UniProt IDP22301
Primary gene name(s)IL10
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameInterleukin-10
Protein functionInhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF and GM-CSF produced by activated macrophages and by helper T-cells.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P22301
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aging [GO:0007568];
B cell differentiation [GO:0030183];
B cell proliferation [GO:0042100];
branching involved in labyrinthine layer morphogenesis [GO:0060670];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
cellular response to estradiol stimulus [GO:0071392];
cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus [GO:0035729];
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0071222];
cytoplasmic sequestering of NF-kappaB [GO:0007253];
defense response to bacterium [GO:0042742];
defense response to protozoan [GO:0042832];
endothelial cell apoptotic process [GO:0072577];
hemopoiesis [GO:0030097];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
leukocyte chemotaxis [GO:0030595];
liver regeneration [GO:0097421];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of B cell proliferation [GO:0030889];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of chemokine, C-C motif ligand 5 production [GO:0071650];
negative regulation of chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus [GO:0002875];
negative regulation of cytokine activity [GO:0060302];
negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response [GO:0002740];
negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host [GO:0044130];
negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion [GO:0034115];
negative regulation of interferon-alpha biosynthetic process [GO:0045355];
negative regulation of interferon-gamma production [GO:0032689];
negative regulation of interleukin-12 production [GO:0032695];
negative regulation of interleukin-18 production [GO:0032701];
negative regulation of interleukin-1 production [GO:0032692];
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production [GO:0032715];
negative regulation of interleukin-8 production [GO:0032717];
negative regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis [GO:0051045];
negative regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process [GO:0045347];
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0045930];
negative regulation of myeloid dendritic cell activation [GO:0030886];
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process [GO:0045019];
negative regulation of sensory perception of pain [GO:1904057];
negative regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042130];
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process [GO:0042536];
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production [GO:0032720];
negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:1904706];
positive regulation of B cell apoptotic process [GO:0002904];
positive regulation of cytokine secretion [GO:0050715];
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion [GO:0034116];
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade [GO:0046427];
positive regulation of macrophage activation [GO:0043032];
positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process [GO:0045348];
positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity [GO:0051091];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:1904707];
receptor biosynthetic process [GO:0032800];
regulation of gene expression [GO:0010468];
regulation of isotype switching [GO:0045191];
regulation of response to wounding [GO:1903034];
regulation of synapse organization [GO:0050807];
response to activity [GO:0014823];
response to carbon monoxide [GO:0034465];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to glucocorticoid [GO:0051384];
response to inactivity [GO:0014854];
response to insulin [GO:0032868];
response to molecule of bacterial origin [GO:0002237];
type 2 immune response [GO:0042092]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cytokine activity [GO:0005125];
growth factor activity [GO:0008083];
interleukin-10 receptor binding [GO:0005141]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular space [GO:0005615]
Protein-protein interaction109800
Phylogenetic treeP22301
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD35.063057004523312.06732497787243e-092.78950063263145e-08
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-4.032719493372531.9019277863741e-072.16374788315496e-06
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-4.357989390304447.71604841309781e-064.54959958290875e-05
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-1.171742674563390.230267043741060.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3-5.228176267306032.88563617445448e-105.61953411596283e-09
SAHA vs. CD3-4.693411726861613.33660965523563e-094.9637421030998e-08
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.279 4.02E-08 1.88E-06
Infected vs. Bystander 1.967 1.04E-11 1.45E-09
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.07954 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB05066 AV411 investigational unknown unknown
DB05744 CRx-139 investigational unknown unknown
DB05771 LLL-3348 investigational unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1ILK X-ray 1.8Å A=28-178.
1INR X-ray 2.0Å A=19-178.
1J7V X-ray 2.9Å L=19-178.
1LK3 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=26-178.
1Y6K X-ray 2.5Å L=19-178.
2H24 X-ray 2.0Å A=19-178.
2ILK X-ray 1.6Å A=19-178.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef inhibits 16429138
Tat activates 17202341
17376198
20588103
Tat upregulates 15488737
16920714
18541226
18692180
2058810317202341
18541226
2037855017202341
1869218018760861
2058810319621989
20378550
25943894
7695626
8037735
8898665
11044099
11833470
11919157
15857508
15907845
16375755
16920714
17202341
18692180
18760861
20138641
20378550
20588103
20661303
23898208
24073214
24418364
25471526
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 inhibits 7553888
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 downregulates 22889273
capsid induces release of 9743208
Tat modulates 18760861
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 24586620
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor induces release of 21689404
Nef inhibited by 23554973
Tat cooperates with 20661303
Nef downregulates 21858117
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 11087201
1560389917983270
23999600
24162774
7511078
7815507
8764000
9108403
9225992
9658081
12089333
15481145
16160188
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor regulated by 21936714
Pol regulated by 21936714
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 cooperates with 16547227
reverse transcriptase inhibited by 7527834
23772625
Vpr modulates 9334723
10775602
10985253
12444143
19275586
Tat induces release of 24165011
25471526
Pr55(Gag) induces release of 18945465
23897063
9743208
Pr55(Gag) upregulates 24505475
Nef induces release of 23554973
24445366
Tat inhibited by 16781761
Vpr upregulates 15956545
Vif upregulates 23333304
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces release of 23554973
23554973
23554973
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 23554973
Nef upregulates 11023665
12270545
20012528
2444536611137132
9096366
11137132
18826950
19013323
20012528
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 upregulates 10089566
1080718523383108
244453667553888
9143942
9534962
10089566
10807185
24445366

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04068 FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04630 Jak-STAT signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04672 Intestinal immune network for IgA production - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05133 Pertussis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05140 Leishmaniasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05143 African trypanosomiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05144 Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05146 Amoebiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05150 Staphylococcus aureus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05310 Asthma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05320 Autoimmune thyroid disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05321 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05322 Systemic lupus erythematosus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05330 Allograft rejection - Homo sapiens (human)
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