Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0008757
UniProt IDP01579
Primary gene name(s)IFNG
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameInterferon gamma
Protein functionProduced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P01579
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adaptive immune response [GO:0002250];
antigen processing and presentation [GO:0019882];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation involved in immune response [GO:0002302];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
cell surface receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007166];
cellular response to interleukin-18 [GO:0071351];
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0071222];
defense response to bacterium [GO:0042742];
defense response to protozoan [GO:0042832];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response [GO:0030968];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097191];
humoral immune response [GO:0006959];
interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0060333];
movement of cell or subcellular component [GO:0006928];
negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030857];
negative regulation of fibroblast proliferation [GO:0048147];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation [GO:0072125];
negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host [GO:0044130];
negative regulation of interleukin-17 production [GO:0032700];
negative regulation of myelination [GO:0031642];
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:0048662];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
neutrophil apoptotic process [GO:0001781];
neutrophil chemotaxis [GO:0030593];
positive regulation of autophagy [GO:0010508];
positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity [GO:0060559];
positive regulation of CD4-positive, CD25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory T cell differentiation involved in immune response [GO:0032834];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process [GO:0045080];
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration [GO:0010634];
positive regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane [GO:0090004];
positive regulation of exosomal secretion [GO:1903543];
positive regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity [GO:0060550];
positive regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate metabolic process [GO:0060552];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process [GO:0045084];
positive regulation of interleukin-12 production [GO:0032735];
positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta secretion [GO:0050718];
positive regulation of interleukin-23 production [GO:0032747];
positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process [GO:0045410];
positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes [GO:0048304];
positive regulation of killing of cells of other organism [GO:0051712];
positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis [GO:0051044];
positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process [GO:0045348];
positive regulation of neuron differentiation [GO:0045666];
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process [GO:0045429];
positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation [GO:0045672];
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein [GO:0033141];
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process [GO:0034393];
positive regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO:0032224];
positive regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042102];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor, ligand superfamily member 11 production [GO:2000309];
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production [GO:0032760];
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 protein [GO:0042511];
positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process [GO:0060557];
protein import into nucleus, translocation [GO:0000060];
regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO:0060251];
regulation of hepatocyte proliferation [GO:2000345];
regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0050796];
regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0060334];
regulation of neuronal action potential [GO:0098908];
regulation of the force of heart contraction [GO:0002026];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to virus [GO:0009615];
sensory perception of mechanical stimulus [GO:0050954];
T cell receptor signaling pathway [GO:0050852]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cytokine activity [GO:0005125];
interferon-gamma receptor binding [GO:0005133]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
external side of plasma membrane [GO:0009897];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
intracellular [GO:0005622]
Protein-protein interaction109680
Phylogenetic treeP01579
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD37.4102768883045900
AZA vs. DISU-0.1567923043476180.8289265684299050.985239814541943
AZA vs. IL71.417761227036910.03712372062374860.592133165038902
AZA vs. SAHA0.1524451725192190.8332196893044140.959956299064574
DISU vs. CD3-7.573350589429900
DISU vs. IL71.561241680534110.009725280447392630.115349018681702
DISU vs. SAHA0.3151818627680240.6286225490980120.882954317881168
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-7.721955672217062.9517499555709e-125.98494119524572e-11
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL71.745997131596430.03879351863236110.40435473444405
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4687529375520920.5903995469275440.860033981417457
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4179747216972170.59746999811520.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency1.362659510090170.001855095924055420.103731074279468
IL7 vs. CD3-5.9913999307493700
SAHA vs. CD3-7.2725259433751700
SAHA vs. IL7-1.260556739971870.03652109920086980.148548043538562
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.961 2.26E-09 1.92E-07
Infected vs. Bystander 2.594 8.95E-12 1.27E-09
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
2.8 0.000454832 2.4 0.00223319 3.3 0.002142122
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 2.61217 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01296 Glucosamine approved unknown unknown
DB05110 VIR201 investigational unknown unknown
DB05111 Fontolizumab investigational unknown unknown
DB05676 Apremilast approved, investigational unknown unknown
DB01250 Olsalazine approved yes unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1EKU X-ray 2.9Å A/B=26-161.
1FG9 X-ray 2.9Å A/B=24-156.
1FYH X-ray 2.0Å A/D=28-156.
1HIG X-ray 3.5Å A/B/C/D=24-161.
3BES X-ray 2.2Å L=24-161.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat synergizes with 10438928
1637575510446807
18569454
2337610319479051
2058810319941336
2337610323376103
Pr55(Gag) inhibited by 24173214
8809126
9743208
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 stimulates 24942586
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 17613714
17613714
17613714
18414664
22496218
22496218
253202938188658
8648753
8706326
18670216
matrix upregulates 12105273
12542496
16427155
Nef inhibits 21858117
21858117
capsid inhibits 1905983
Tat upregulates 18300036
24073214
2594389424841128
7818827
18539368
20588103
capsid enhances 25240755
Pr55(Gag) interacts with 24227857
25926647
Vif downregulates 23333304
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibits 10933622
15936090
2272764623999600
25234720
7941321
Pr55(Gag) binds 2514776
8065455
8619916
8679287
capsid induces release of 19135418
25781895
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor induces release of 25878112
Vpr inhibits 19559726
Nef downregulates 8598486
8765022
15638726
capsid inhibited by 19403671
24173214
8809126
9743208
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 7511078
7815507
8764000
9108403
9225992
9658081
12089333
15481145
161601888661419
Tat downregulates 11751951
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 1905933
7583919
953496222727646
25234720
8706326
Nef interacts with 21858117
24227857
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 interacts with 8247028
matrix binds 2514776
8065455
8619916
8679287
reverse transcriptase degraded by 10358150
Tat induces release of 15737643
16375755
2108563516014948
Pr55(Gag) stimulates 16263796
17002607
22395607
24942586
25609823
Asp enhances 25809376
Tat interacts with 14602571
1708818
18569454
2058810324073214
9916748
Asp upregulates 25589651
25701112
Pr55(Gag) induces release of 18525269
2294826918945465
25240755
capsid upregulates 24899193
Pr55(Gag) upregulates 12105273
1254249617013989
21778700
25609823
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor downregulates 7523014
9712080
Tat inhibits 19279332
20588103
2109967321099673
25313583
25313583
8760410
Vpr downregulates 17023015
1841758318417583
Tat inhibited by 1400376
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibited by 12975380
15320903
15936090
Vpr upregulates 10775602
Pr55(Gag) inhibits 1905983
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces release of 7511078
7526537
7904170
8345204
8537091
12089333
15936090
17180012
17765942
18670216
22899554
24920818
25122197
25878112
Nef upregulates 10388525
17600593
2239560724899193
8102828
8769094
18539368
20535218
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 upregulates 23383108
2452186

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03050 Proteasome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04066 HIF-1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04140 Autophagy - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04350 TGF-beta signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04380 Osteoclast differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04612 Antigen processing and presentation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04630 Jak-STAT signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04657 IL-17 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04658 Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04659 Th17 cell differentiation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04940 Type I diabetes mellitus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05140 Leishmaniasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05142 Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05143 African trypanosomiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05144 Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05145 Toxoplasmosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05146 Amoebiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05162 Measles - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05168 Herpes simplex infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05321 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05322 Systemic lupus erythematosus - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05330 Allograft rejection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05332 Graft-versus-host disease - Homo sapiens (human)
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