Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0008746
UniProt IDP04141
Primary gene name(s)CSF2
Synonym gene name(s)GMCSF
Protein nameGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Protein functionCytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P04141
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0071222];
dendritic cell differentiation [GO:0097028];
embryonic placenta development [GO:0001892];
epithelial fluid transport [GO:0042045];
histamine secretion [GO:0001821];
immune response [GO:0006955];
macrophage activation [GO:0042116];
MAPK cascade [GO:0000165];
monocyte differentiation [GO:0030224];
myeloid dendritic cell differentiation [GO:0043011];
negative regulation of cytolysis [GO:0045918];
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:2001240];
neutrophil differentiation [GO:0030223];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of DNA replication [GO:0045740];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of interleukin-23 production [GO:0032747];
positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation [GO:0010744];
positive regulation of podosome assembly [GO:0071803];
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein [GO:0042523];
regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO:0045187];
response to fluid shear stress [GO:0034405];
response to silicon dioxide [GO:0034021]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding [GO:0005129];
protein tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0004713];
Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005088]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
intracellular [GO:0005622]
Protein-protein interaction107824
Phylogenetic treeP04141
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD310.030023412731900
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3-9.6001173563765400
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3-10.126924423732900
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.6893455534689560.4926252035839140.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3-9.8653843077231100
SAHA vs. CD3-10.812944346992500
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock 1.139 2.61E-09 2.13E-07
Infected vs. Bystander 1.639 1.82E-12 3.90E-10
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 2.33771 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB05194 KB002 investigational unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1CSG X-ray 2.7Å A/B=18-144.
2GMF X-ray 2.4Å A/B=18-144.
4NKQ X-ray 3.3Å B=18-144.
4RS1 X-ray 2.6Å A=31-142.
5C7X X-ray 2.9Å A/B=18-144.
5D70 X-ray 2.0Å A=18-144.
5D71 X-ray 2.2Å A=1-127.
5D72 X-ray 2.6Å A/B=1-127.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
reverse transcriptase interacts with 7521193
Nef interacts with 22655069
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor upregulates 7642615
8018916
capsid upregulated by 25341640
Tat upregulates 7695626
7818827
23898208
Vif upregulates 23333304
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 24162774
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces release of 1918997
15481145
Nef upregulates 24899193
capsid upregulates 24899193
Pr55(Gag) induces release of 18945465
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 upregulates 23383108

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04630 Jak-STAT signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04640 Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04657 IL-17 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04664 Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04668 TNF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05146 Amoebiasis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05202 Transcriptional misregulation in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)
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