Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0008668
UniProt IDA8K0Z3
Primary gene name(s)WASH1
Synonym gene name(s)FAM39E
Protein nameWAS protein family homolog 1
Protein functionActs as a nucleation-promoting factor, NPF at the surface of endosomes, where it recruits and activates the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization, playing a key role in the fission of tubules that serve as transport intermediates during endosome sorting, PubMed:19922874, PubMed:19922875, PubMed:20498093, PubMed:23452853. Its assembly in the WASH core complex seems to inhibit its NPF activity and via FAM21 is required for its membrane targeting, PubMed:20498093. Involved in endocytic trafficking of EGF, By similarity. Involved in transferrin receptor recycling. Regulates the trafficking of endosomal alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane and involved in invasive cell migration, PubMed:22114305. In T-cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of receptors including T-cell receptor, TCR, CD28 and ITGAL; proposed to be implicated in T cell proliferation and effector function. In dendritic cells involved in endosome-to-membrane recycling of major histocompatibility complex, MHC class II probably involving retromer and subsequently allowing antigen sampling, loading and presentation during T-cell activation, By similarity. Involved in Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin assembly driving Salmonella typhimurium invasion independent of ruffling. Involved in the exocytosis of MMP14 leading to matrix remodeling during invasive migration and implicating late endosome-to-plasma membrane tubular connections and cooperation with the exocyst complex, PubMed:24344185. Involved in negative regulation of autophagy independently from its role in endosomal sorting by inhibiting BECN1 ubiquitination to inactivate PIK3C3/Vps34 activity, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:C4AMC7, ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDD8, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19922874, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19922875, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20498093, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22114305, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23452853, ECO:0000305|PubMed:20498093}.
Subcellular locationEarly endosome membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19922874}. Recycling endosome membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDD8}. Late endosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22114305, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24344185}. Cytoplasmic vesicle, autophagosome {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDD8}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDD8}. Note=Localization to the endosome membrane is mediated via its interaction with FAM21, PubMed:19922874. Localizes to MMP14-positive late endosomes and transiently to invadipodia, PubMed:24344185. Localized to Salmonella typhimurium entry sites, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDD8, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19922874, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24344185}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: A8K0Z3
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation [GO:0034314];
endosomal transport [GO:0016197];
exocytosis [GO:0006887];
extracellular matrix disassembly [GO:0022617];
negative regulation of autophagy [GO:0010507];
negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity [GO:0043553];
positive regulation of cell migration [GO:0030335];
positive regulation of pseudopodium assembly [GO:0031274];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031396];
retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi [GO:0042147];
retrograde transport, endosome to plasma membrane [GO:1990126]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
alpha-tubulin binding [GO:0043014];
ubiquitin protein ligase binding [GO:0031625]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
autophagosome [GO:0005776];
centriole [GO:0005814];
cytoplasmic vesicle [GO:0031410];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
early endosome membrane [GO:0031901];
invadopodium [GO:0071437];
late endosome [GO:0005770];
recycling endosome [GO:0055037];
recycling endosome membrane [GO:0055038];
WASH complex [GO:0071203]
Protein-protein interaction938833
Phylogenetic treeA8K0Z3
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.3511 0.03673

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.605151 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)