Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0008061
UniProt IDQ03135
Primary gene name(s)CAV1
Synonym gene name(s)CAV
Protein nameCaveolin-1
Protein functionMay act as a scaffolding protein within caveolar membranes. Interacts directly with G-protein alpha subunits and can functionally regulate their activity, By similarity. Involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-cell receptor, TCR-mediated T-cell activation. Its binding to DPP4 induces T-cell proliferation and NF-kappa-B activation in a T-cell receptor/CD3-dependent manner. Recruits CTNNB1 to caveolar membranes and may regulate CTNNB1-mediated signaling through the Wnt pathway. Negatively regulates TGFB1-mediated activation of SMAD2/3 by mediating the internalization of TGFBR1 from membrane rafts leading to its subsequent degradation, PubMed:25893292. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P49817, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11751885, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17287217, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25893292}.
Subcellular locationGolgi apparatus membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein. Cell membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein. Membrane, caveola;
Peripheral membrane protein. Membrane raft {ECO:0000269|PubMed:25893292}. Note=Colocalized with DPP4 in membrane rafts. Potential hairpin-like structure in the membrane. Membrane protein of caveolae.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q03135
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
angiogenesis [GO:0001525];
angiotensin-activated signaling pathway involved in heart process [GO:0086098];
apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097190];
beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly [GO:1904886];
calcium ion homeostasis [GO:0055074];
calcium ion transport [GO:0006816];
caveola assembly [GO:0070836];
caveolin-mediated endocytosis [GO:0072584];
cellular calcium ion homeostasis [GO:0006874];
cellular response to exogenous dsRNA [GO:0071360];
cellular response to hyperoxia [GO:0071455];
cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus [GO:0071375];
cellular response to starvation [GO:0009267];
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus [GO:0071560];
cholesterol homeostasis [GO:0042632];
cholesterol transport [GO:0030301];
inactivation of MAPK activity [GO:0000188];
lactation [GO:0007595];
leukocyte migration [GO:0050900];
lipid storage [GO:0019915];
maintenance of protein location in cell [GO:0032507];
mammary gland development [GO:0030879];
mammary gland involution [GO:0060056];
MAPK cascade [GO:0000165];
membrane depolarization [GO:0051899];
negative regulation of anoikis [GO:2000811];
negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway [GO:0030514];
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0090090];
negative regulation of cytokine-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0001960];
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO:0001937];
negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030857];
negative regulation of JAK-STAT cascade [GO:0046426];
negative regulation of MAPK cascade [GO:0043409];
negative regulation of necroptotic process [GO:0060546];
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process [GO:0045019];
negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity [GO:0051001];
negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033137];
negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation [GO:1900085];
negative regulation of pinocytosis [GO:0048550];
negative regulation of potassium ion transmembrane transport [GO:1901380];
negative regulation of protein binding [GO:0032091];
negative regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity [GO:0061099];
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031397];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0030512];
negative regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein [GO:0042524];
nitric oxide homeostasis [GO:0033484];
positive regulation of calcium ion transport into cytosol [GO:0010524];
positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0090263];
positive regulation of catalytic activity [GO:0043085];
positive regulation of cell adhesion molecule production [GO:0060355];
positive regulation of ER-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:1903071];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001238];
positive regulation of gap junction assembly [GO:1903598];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001244];
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033138];
positive regulation of protein binding [GO:0032092];
positive regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031398];
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway [GO:0034141];
positive regulation of vasoconstriction [GO:0045907];
posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression [GO:0010608];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
protein localization [GO:0008104];
protein localization to basolateral plasma membrane [GO:1903361];
protein localization to plasma membrane raft [GO:0044860];
receptor internalization [GO:0031623];
receptor internalization involved in canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:2000286];
receptor-mediated endocytosis of virus by host cell [GO:0019065];
regulation of blood coagulation [GO:0030193];
regulation of cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in regulation of contraction [GO:0098909];
regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction [GO:1901844];
regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration [GO:0051480];
regulation of entry of bacterium into host cell [GO:2000535];
regulation of fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0019217];
regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction [GO:0086091];
regulation of inward rectifier potassium channel activity [GO:1901979];
regulation of membrane repolarization during action potential [GO:0098903];
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity [GO:0050999];
regulation of peptidase activity [GO:0052547];
regulation of ruffle assembly [GO:1900027];
regulation of smooth muscle contraction [GO:0006940];
regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal [GO:0003057];
regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential [GO:0098911];
response to bacterium [GO:0009617];
response to calcium ion [GO:0051592];
response to estrogen [GO:0043627];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to ischemia [GO:0002931];
response to progesterone [GO:0032570];
skeletal muscle tissue development [GO:0007519];
T cell costimulation [GO:0031295];
triglyceride metabolic process [GO:0006641];
vasculogenesis [GO:0001570];
vasoconstriction [GO:0042310];
vesicle organization [GO:0016050]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATPase binding [GO:0051117];
cholesterol binding [GO:0015485];
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
inward rectifier potassium channel inhibitor activity [GO:0070320];
ion channel binding [GO:0044325];
nitric-oxide synthase binding [GO:0050998];
patched binding [GO:0005113];
peptidase activator activity [GO:0016504];
protein complex scaffold [GO:0032947];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
Rac GTPase binding [GO:0048365];
receptor binding [GO:0005102];
structural molecule activity [GO:0005198]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
acrosomal membrane [GO:0002080];
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
basal plasma membrane [GO:0009925];
basolateral plasma membrane [GO:0016323];
caveola [GO:0005901];
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cell surface [GO:0009986];
cilium [GO:0005929];
cytoplasmic vesicle [GO:0031410];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
early endosome membrane [GO:0031901];
endocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030666];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
endosome [GO:0005768];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
lipid particle [GO:0005811];
membrane [GO:0016020];
membrane raft [GO:0045121];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
protein complex [GO:0043234]
Protein-protein interaction107305
Phylogenetic treeQ03135
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.289229634441280.173662035854920.273418385501447
AZA vs. DISU-0.516120793854210.6152635914584690.957895177103442
AZA vs. IL7-0.3506846443677350.6841203775592310.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.586055115729920.5480987503002280.846156590067857
DISU vs. CD30.7629391690657060.5027268018498290.628002304722327
DISU vs. IL70.1541989721971660.8731932826505840.975747019716473
DISU vs. SAHA-0.06987448094974420.946830836604080.988212732470078
DMSO vs. AZA0.1249476112380290.8863350716607971
DMSO vs. CD31.40109657442190.08230732508856860.145757594035416
DMSO vs. DISU0.6382607297328790.5130371127829750.912102132233928
DMSO vs. IL7-0.4678639031369990.5481843898991080.897425363918391
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.7165155789168280.4345080014570690.769051096883087
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4097024959571080.6391760254107410.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.4169448980850240.4152792687554380.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.9428522428374930.2276584305514560.35618595844946
SAHA vs. CD30.6790743919099390.5113855983886360.619601611858297
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2372451075384750.7930326702803370.909754526012618
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -1.25255 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
212097_at 1.94 No upregulated in CD4+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 binds 15539149
Nef induces phosphorylation of 26169283
capsid co-localizes with 25551286
Nef interacts with 23067370
Nef redistributes 26169283
Tat co-localizes with 24578133
reverse transcriptase inhibited by 25408776
Tat upregulates 20610713
Vpr mediated by 21704113
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 25551286
Tat modulated by 18667611

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)