Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0007853
UniProt IDP42768
Primary gene name(s)WAS
Synonym gene name(s)IMD2
Protein nameWiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
Protein functionEffector protein for Rho-type GTPases. Regulates actin filament reorganization via its interaction with the Arp2/3 complex. Important for efficient actin polymerization. Possible regulator of lymphocyte and platelet function. Mediates actin filament reorganization and the formation of actin pedestals upon infection by pathogenic bacteria. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12235133, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16275905, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18650809}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P42768
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin filament-based movement [GO:0030048];
actin filament polymerization [GO:0030041];
actin polymerization or depolymerization [GO:0008154];
blood coagulation [GO:0007596];
defense response [GO:0006952];
endosomal transport [GO:0016197];
epidermis development [GO:0008544];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
immune response [GO:0006955];
negative regulation of cell motility [GO:2000146];
positive regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation [GO:2000601];
protein complex assembly [GO:0006461];
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation [GO:0002625];
T cell activation [GO:0042110];
T cell receptor signaling pathway [GO:0050852]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
GTPase regulator activity [GO:0030695];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
phospholipase binding [GO:0043274];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
SH3 domain binding [GO:0017124]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
vesicle membrane [GO:0012506]
Protein-protein interaction113293
Phylogenetic treeP42768
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.615559119249321.90159942692336e-061.38928291626703e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.1269889069074460.6154628788486660.957895177103442
AZA vs. IL7-0.1562505611266010.4464226882647210.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.6340163520132240.009710596037588390.0957968093394028
DISU vs. CD31.477086297948667.34810809748243e-050.000433354387564359
DISU vs. IL7-0.03912009281301650.8764903910847430.97621667126727
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5040577714476790.08432869102244220.369560250770348
DMSO vs. AZA-0.05951698282653880.7496587560162811
DMSO vs. CD31.546674211548482.67294608147228e-061.74849903245245e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.06629227790372960.7856448139247010.973114958962133
DMSO vs. IL7-0.08956117807589190.6183010763926230.9165625227459
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.5795610689545820.0142734781918120.113625122300423
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2697485483075340.665279590748380.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1470252843737720.3730429425121840.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.464012742051738.85738364908573e-066.93544642819061e-05
SAHA vs. CD30.9595388322074260.007398277136701160.0199057376272249
SAHA vs. IL7-0.479164552335670.04953875647165610.182931384567385
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.839768 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.034 1.08 1.105 1.114 1.129
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01731 (S)-Wiskostatin experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1CEE NMR - B=230-288.
1EJ5 NMR - A=242-310# A=461-492.
1T84 NMR - A=242-310# A=461-492.
2A3Z X-ray 2.0Å C=430-458.
2K42 NMR - A=242-310.
2OT0 X-ray 2.0Å E/F/G/H=488-502.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
retropepsin cleaves 22944692
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 23119100
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 associates with 23119100
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 21562048
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 enhances 23119100

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05231 Choline metabolism in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)