Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0007831
UniProt IDO75436
Primary gene name(s)VPS26A
Synonym gene name(s)VPS26
Protein nameVacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 26A
Protein functionActs as component of the retromer cargo-selective complex, CSC. The CSC is believed to be the core functional component of retromer or respective retromer complex variants acting to prevent missorting of selected transmembrane cargo proteins into the lysosomal degradation pathway. The recruitment of the CSC to the endosomal membrane involves RAB7A and SNX3. The SNX-BAR retromer mediates retrograde transport of cargo proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network, TGN and is involved in endosome-to-plasma membrane transport for cargo protein recycling. The SNX3-retromer mediates the retrograde endosome-to-TGN transport of WLS distinct from the SNX-BAR retromer pathway. The SNX27-retromer is believed to be involved in endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking and recycling of a broad spectrum of cargo proteins, Probable. The CSC seems to act as recruitment hub for other proteins, such as the WASH complex and TBC1D5, Probable. Required for retrograde transport of lysosomal enzyme receptor IGF2R, PubMed:15078902, PubMed:15078903. Required to regulate transcytosis of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, pIgR-pIgA, PubMed:15247922. Required for the endosomal localization of FAM21A, indicative for the WASH complex, PubMed:22070227. Required for the endosomal localization of TBC1D5, PubMed:20923837. Mediates retromer cargo reognition of SORL1 and is involved in trafficking of SORL1 implicated in sorting and processing of APP, PubMed:22279231. Involved in retromer-independent lysosomal sorting of F2R, PubMed:16407403. Involved in recycling of ADRB2, PubMed:21602791. Enhances the affinity of SNX27 for PDZ-binding motifs in cargo proteins, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P40336, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15078902, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15078903, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15247922, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16407403, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22070227, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22279231, ECO:0000303|PubMed:20923837, ECO:0000303|PubMed:21602791, ECO:0000303|PubMed:21725319, ECO:0000303|PubMed:23563491, ECO:0000305}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15078903}. Endosome membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22431521};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P40336}. Early endosome {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15078903, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16190980, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16732284, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20682791}. Note=Localizes to tubular profiles adjacent to endosomes, PubMed:15078903. Predominantly found in early not late endosomes, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P40336}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O75436
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
intracellular protein transport [GO:0006886];
regulation of macroautophagy [GO:0016241];
retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi [GO:0042147];
retrograde transport, endosome to plasma membrane [GO:1990126];
Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0016055]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
protein transporter activity [GO:0008565]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
endosome [GO:0005768];
endosome membrane [GO:0010008];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
retromer, cargo-selective complex [GO:0030906];
retromer complex [GO:0030904];
tubular endosome [GO:0097422];
vesicle [GO:0031982]
Protein-protein interaction114930
Phylogenetic treeO75436
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4544699488801090.1677347983800440.266227767605731
AZA vs. DISU0.265709566070030.2949168591291750.859189309662628
AZA vs. IL70.2000094628725170.3006446963916950.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.01881941516638390.9390421607986290.986836746232071
DISU vs. CD3-0.2015967417066340.5785057819900560.693415725009391
DISU vs. IL7-0.07470960510607910.7670725356006660.945435244393757
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2459483682314720.4040240046155750.762847127732565
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1033749854616420.5403907401230081
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5672394276047430.07842678807885650.140021280209525
DMSO vs. DISU-0.3702494187425390.1306825394021710.620496811136105
DMSO vs. IL70.3100910830309620.08660167416407180.550224883237125
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1145808921640040.6296525269216840.879153625997518
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2048521115542880.7420858721488140.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03428518588418580.8366041660995930.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2460654191121950.4447587149390370.579140572164698
SAHA vs. CD3-0.4607005617110990.2018840509110620.304361009126622
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1846970956228480.4533382081953870.691148306018284
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.214738 0.122012
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.049 1.161 1.088 1.095 1.041
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2FAU X-ray 2.1Å A=1-327.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 binds 25393110
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 interacts with 25393110
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 regulated by 25393110
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 regulated by 25393110

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)