Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0007643
UniProt IDP30536
Primary gene name(s)TSPO
Synonym gene name(s)BZRP, MBR
Protein nameTranslocator protein
Protein functionCan bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme, By similarity. Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism, PubMed:24814875, but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides, PubMed:1847678. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:1847678, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24814875}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1847678};
Multi-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1847678}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P30536
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adrenal gland development [GO:0030325];
aging [GO:0007568];
anion transport [GO:0006820];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
behavioral response to pain [GO:0048266];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular hypotonic response [GO:0071476];
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0071222];
cellular response to zinc ion [GO:0071294];
chloride transport [GO:0006821];
contact inhibition [GO:0060242];
glial cell migration [GO:0008347];
heme biosynthetic process [GO:0006783];
lipid transport [GO:0006869];
maintenance of protein location in mitochondrion [GO:0072656];
negative regulation of ATP metabolic process [GO:1903579];
negative regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO:0060253];
negative regulation of mitophagy [GO:1903147];
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process [GO:0045019];
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO:0031397];
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production [GO:0032720];
peripheral nervous system axon regeneration [GO:0014012];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of calcium ion transport [GO:0051928];
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO:0060252];
positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization [GO:0051901];
positive regulation of necrotic cell death [GO:0010940];
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process [GO:2000379];
protein targeting to mitochondrion [GO:0006626];
regulation of cholesterol transport [GO:0032374];
regulation of steroid biosynthetic process [GO:0050810];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to manganese ion [GO:0010042];
response to progesterone [GO:0032570];
response to testosterone [GO:0033574];
response to vitamin B1 [GO:0010266];
steroid biosynthetic process [GO:0006694];
steroid metabolic process [GO:0008202]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
androgen binding [GO:0005497];
benzodiazepine receptor activity [GO:0008503];
cholesterol binding [GO:0015485]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nuclear membrane [GO:0031965];
postsynapse [GO:0098794]
Protein-protein interaction107168
Phylogenetic treeP30536
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.7619327969588920.02162929059307940.0496189753148999
AZA vs. DISU-0.4182457867034970.1837586620773640.770294235860451
AZA vs. IL7-0.02431001577778970.9245432782965080.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.00573786559410770.9824227332001130.996243190432113
DISU vs. CD30.3336416685481080.3591534344164460.492887734012519
DISU vs. IL70.3837283871553240.2630340743827540.648975232621935
DISU vs. SAHA0.4266389059473350.2159159507306520.590861995214642
DMSO vs. AZA-0.0543516396645130.7471773675537741
DMSO vs. CD30.6965282772917390.03124403835682730.0649677622975298
DMSO vs. DISU0.3621568361215170.2048167388783280.720163528644231
DMSO vs. IL70.03758272409016520.8641911132065780.970618094663316
DMSO vs. SAHA0.05585636320953660.8130978832576710.9485501908657
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1539541051311620.8074233655566170.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1117757647552080.5021463045259930.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.7421638737979560.02189560213205570.0562044296553942
SAHA vs. CD30.7460442243564910.03684420325802270.0770955488889756
SAHA vs. IL70.02831922823612810.9244615436328030.972255167007666
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.608775 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.005 0.933 0.986 1.072 0.827
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00186 Lorazepam approved unknown other
DB00231 Temazepam approved unknown other
DB00402 Eszopiclone approved yes agonist
DB00628 Clorazepate approved, illicit unknown agonist
DB00829 Diazepam approved, illicit, vet_approved unknown potentiator
DB00897 Triazolam approved unknown other
DB00962 Zaleplon approved, illicit, investigational yes other
DB01178 Chlormezanone approved, withdrawn yes agonist
DB01198 Zopiclone approved unknown agonist
DB01068 Clonazepam approved, illicit unknown other/unknown
DB01544 Flunitrazepam approved, illicit yes agonist
DB01587 Ketazolam approved yes agonist

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor inhibited by 24403586
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 regulated by 24403586
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 regulated by 24403586
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 24403586

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04080 Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)