Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0007447
UniProt IDQ96FV9
Primary gene name(s)THOC1
Synonym gene name(s)HPR1
Protein nameTHO complex subunit 1
Protein functionRequired for efficient export of polyadenylated RNA. Acts as component of the THO subcomplex of the TREX complex which is thought to couple mRNA transcription, processing and nuclear export, and which specifically associates with spliced mRNA and not with unspliced pre-mRNA. TREX is recruited to spliced mRNAs by a transcription-independent mechanism, binds to mRNA upstream of the exon-junction complex, EJC and is recruited in a splicing- and cap-dependent manner to a region near the 5' end of the mRNA where it functions in mRNA export to the cytoplasm via the TAP/NFX1 pathway. The TREX complex is essential for the export of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, KSHV intronless mRNAs and infectious virus production. Regulates transcriptional elongation of a subset of genes. Involved in genome stability by preventing co-transcriptional R-loop formation.; FUNCTION: Participates in an apoptotic pathway which is characterized by activation of caspase-6, increases in the expression of BAK1 and BCL2L1 and activation of NF-kappa-B. This pathway does not require p53/TP53, nor does the presence of p53/TP53 affect the efficiency of cell killing. Activates a G2/M cell cycle checkpoint prior to the onset of apoptosis. Apoptosis is inhibited by association with RB1.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Nucleus speckle. Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Nucleus matrix. Cytoplasm. Note=Can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Nuclear localization is required for induction of apoptotic cell death. Translocates to the cytoplasm during the early phase of apoptosis execution.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Cytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q96FV9
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
mRNA 3'-end processing [GO:0031124];
mRNA export from nucleus [GO:0006406];
negative regulation of DNA damage checkpoint [GO:2000002];
negative regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes [GO:0048297];
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription, elongation [GO:0032786];
regulation of DNA recombination [GO:0000018];
regulation of DNA-templated transcription, elongation [GO:0032784];
replication fork processing [GO:0031297];
RNA export from nucleus [GO:0006405];
RNA processing [GO:0006396];
RNA splicing [GO:0008380];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
termination of RNA polymerase II transcription [GO:0006369];
viral mRNA export from host cell nucleus [GO:0046784]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
intercellular bridge [GO:0045171];
nuclear matrix [GO:0016363];
nuclear speck [GO:0016607];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
THO complex [GO:0000347];
THO complex part of transcription export complex [GO:0000445];
transcription export complex [GO:0000346]
Protein-protein interaction115305
Phylogenetic treeQ96FV9
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.246465163014120.0001761686173359370.000793074492379701
AZA vs. DISU0.2475784018023860.3314382791329920.879368785579854
AZA vs. IL70.1128126486243050.5600508879959920.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.06214668098388040.799760071837870.947542449710936
DISU vs. CD3-1.012317504271180.005896851832790320.0186311348831443
DISU vs. IL7-0.143027027795190.5733627239153780.863368710742884
DISU vs. SAHA-0.3088562582745530.2928884222346120.675903727948631
DMSO vs. AZA0.04123317252470180.807449469924721
DMSO vs. CD3-1.215875953193130.0001768736413088060.000745760259254732
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2077242992361320.3986017643957440.863131629602105
DMSO vs. IL70.07874789326242240.663575031759820.930888829953308
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1108570728831920.6395344423517130.884160382878577
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2908973246862990.6401099967548820.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.06344794533005770.7024605336946760.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.124853658817890.0005396798118761930.00250295193981842
SAHA vs. CD3-1.334064920504710.0002039894263683450.000897368164315629
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1794199587018360.4629790986836510.698943108017762
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.217822 0.194228
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.049 0.005

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.004 0.961 0.979 0.967 1.003
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1WXP NMR - A=561-657.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03013 RNA transport - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03040 Spliceosome - Homo sapiens (human)