Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0007236
UniProt IDQ9NZD8
Primary gene name(s)SPG21
Synonym gene name(s)ACP33
Protein nameMaspardin
Protein functionMay play a role as a negative regulatory factor in CD4-dependent T-cell activation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytosol {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139}. Membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139}. Endosome membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139}. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11113139}. Note=Partially localized in the cytosol but also accumulated on an intracellular vesicular compartment. Colocalizes with CD4 on endosomal/trans-Golgi network.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9NZD8
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
antigen receptor-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0050851]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
CD4 receptor binding [GO:0042609]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endosome membrane [GO:0010008];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
trans-Golgi network transport vesicle [GO:0030140]
Protein-protein interaction119474
Phylogenetic treeQ9NZD8
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7185184883189480.02927924922090830.0638081035652877
AZA vs. DISU0.07678798405076090.7627680740818810.976021571236163
AZA vs. IL7-0.02337996419629130.9036954554817270.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.4404157980507170.07353012940979720.336516479034072
DISU vs. CD3-0.6540381859369620.07546620405492870.149453577927316
DISU vs. IL7-0.1091063526394550.6660690735449310.906789652524865
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5159781076915020.07780078391579830.353919593840928
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02432790463247460.885314545766781
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7560116457648850.01892667017443390.0427417607821687
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1032423473508680.6739026476686550.955057362910325
DMSO vs. IL70.008336740659033870.9632151049229790.993192045602866
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.4219910171095490.07586942528048040.321904377889714
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1616953251141290.7949509512889640.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05614526959347540.7355257867537030.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7343048662952670.02352931845144690.0595962723943302
SAHA vs. CD3-1.183444435190680.001063206493595930.00377355672597517
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4205306933855340.08616269704619070.262427989427782
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.181559 0.210579
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.922 1.156 1.148 0.997 1.15
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)