Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0006688
UniProt IDP06400
Primary gene name(s)RB1
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameRetinoblastoma-associated protein
Protein functionKey regulator of entry into cell division that acts as a tumor suppressor. Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated by CDK3/cyclin-C. Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 target genes. The underphosphorylated, active form of RB1 interacts with E2F1 and represses its transcription activity, leading to cell cycle arrest. Directly involved in heterochromatin formation by maintaining overall chromatin structure and, in particular, that of constitutive heterochromatin by stabilizing histone methylation. Recruits and targets histone methyltransferases SUV39H1, KMT5B and KMT5C, leading to epigenetic transcriptional repression. Controls histone H4 'Lys-20' trimethylation. Inhibits the intrinsic kinase activity of TAF1. Mediates transcriptional repression by SMARCA4/BRG1 by recruiting a histone deacetylase, HDAC complex to the c-FOS promoter. In resting neurons, transcription of the c-FOS promoter is inhibited by BRG1-dependent recruitment of a phospho-RB1-HDAC1 repressor complex. Upon calcium influx, RB1 is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, which leads to release of the repressor complex, By similarity. In case of viral infections, interactions with SV40 large T antigen, HPV E7 protein or adenovirus E1A protein induce the disassembly of RB1-E2F1 complex thereby disrupting RB1's activity. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15084261}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20940255}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P06400
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
androgen receptor signaling pathway [GO:0030521];
cell cycle arrest [GO:0007050];
cell cycle checkpoint [GO:0000075];
cell division [GO:0051301];
cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation [GO:0048667];
cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus [GO:0071466];
chromatin remodeling [GO:0006338];
covalent chromatin modification [GO:0016569];
digestive tract development [GO:0048565];
enucleate erythrocyte differentiation [GO:0043353];
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000082];
glial cell apoptotic process [GO:0034349];
hepatocyte apoptotic process [GO:0097284];
maintenance of mitotic sister chromatid cohesion [GO:0034088];
mitotic cell cycle checkpoint [GO:0007093];
myoblast differentiation [GO:0045445];
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO:0050680];
negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:2000134];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0006469];
negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity [GO:0043433];
negative regulation of smoothened signaling pathway [GO:0045879];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter during mitosis [GO:0007070];
negative regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0071930];
neuron apoptotic process [GO:0051402];
neuron maturation [GO:0042551];
neuron projection development [GO:0031175];
positive regulation of macrophage differentiation [GO:0045651];
positive regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition [GO:0045842];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:2000679];
protein localization to chromosome, centromeric region [GO:0071459];
Ras protein signal transduction [GO:0007265];
regulation of cell growth [GO:0001558];
regulation of centromere complex assembly [GO:0090230];
regulation of cohesin loading [GO:0071922];
regulation of lipid kinase activity [GO:0043550];
regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0007346];
regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000083];
sister chromatid biorientation [GO:0031134];
skeletal muscle cell differentiation [GO:0035914];
striated muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051146];
tissue homeostasis [GO:0001894];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
androgen receptor binding [GO:0050681];
core promoter binding [GO:0001047];
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
kinase binding [GO:0019900];
phosphoprotein binding [GO:0051219];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134];
ubiquitin protein ligase binding [GO:0031625]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromatin [GO:0000785];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
PML body [GO:0016605];
Rb-E2F complex [GO:0035189];
spindle [GO:0005819];
SWI/SNF complex [GO:0016514]
Protein-protein interaction111860
Phylogenetic treeP06400
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3891772041301980.3125180598701930.431968241695174
AZA vs. DISU0.3201276392656650.2075293649026640.797079838242622
AZA vs. IL70.2647289580468820.2564767745721270.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.4254138352425310.08340495401062920.360345737104106
DISU vs. CD3-0.08250981096487810.834277365721370.888316522630778
DISU vs. IL7-0.06358858067459280.808441868221060.958977952643115
DISU vs. SAHA0.1058138466915890.7195488536150890.917103213595783
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09967718002239670.5546384738180311
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5006204023530860.1789437831263680.273962204552716
DMSO vs. DISU-0.4216282983167460.08549382378634310.5402062576353
DMSO vs. IL70.3715548618781680.07600308847297870.520713865162044
DMSO vs. SAHA0.5172930328531550.02953836893514740.182742106588262
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1342701477607140.8769644527590540.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.133671729020510.4199288714813260.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.1145349678632770.7843076198108980.857340543433872
SAHA vs. CD30.009935507882764180.9814676962162130.987586750116071
SAHA vs. IL70.156241952330770.574495248818920.779823627257668
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -1.28587 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.983 1.024 1.083 1.102 1.111
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00030 Insulin Human approved, investigational unknown unknown
DB00071 Insulin Pork approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1AD6 X-ray 2.3Å A=378-562.
1GH6 X-ray 3.2Å B=379-577# B=645-772.
1GUX X-ray 1.8Å A=372-589# B=636-787.
1H25 X-ray 2.5Å E=868-878.
1N4M X-ray 2.2Å A/B=380-785.
1O9K X-ray 2.6Å A/C/E/G=372-589# B/D/F/H=636-787.
1PJM X-ray 2.5Å A=858-881.
2AZE X-ray 2.5Å C=829-874.
2QDJ X-ray 2.0Å A=52-355.
2R7G X-ray 1.6Å A/C=380-787.
3N5U X-ray 3.2Å C=870-882.
3POM X-ray 2.5Å A/B=380-577# A/B=643-783.
4CRI X-ray 2.3Å C/D=802-817.
4ELJ X-ray 2.7Å A=53-787.
4ELL X-ray 1.9Å A/B=380-787.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat inhibited by 8490568
Tat decreases phosphorylation of 9525916
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 decreases phosphorylation of 9453249
Tat induces phosphorylation of 15093750
Tat upregulates 23166591
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 15103018
Tat activated by 9525916
Nef upregulates 12241561

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01522 Endocrine resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05214 Glioma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05215 Prostate cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05218 Melanoma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05219 Bladder cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05220 Chronic myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05222 Small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05223 Non-small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05224 Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)