Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0006654
UniProt IDP54725
Primary gene name(s)RAD23A
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameUV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog A
Protein functionMultiubiquitin chain receptor involved in modulation of proteasomal degradation. Binds to 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitin chains in a length-dependent manner and with a lower affinity to 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. Proposed to be capable to bind simultaneously to the 26S proteasome and to polyubiquitinated substrates and to deliver ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome.; FUNCTION: Involved in nucleotide excision repair and is thought to be functional equivalent for RAD23B in global genome nucleotide excision repair, GG-NER by association with XPC. In vitro, the XPC:RAD23A dimer has NER activity. Can stabilize XPC.; FUNCTION: Involved in vpr-dependent replication of HIV-1 in non-proliferating cells and primary macrophages. Required for the association of HIV-1 vpr with the host proteasome.
Subcellular locationNucleus.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54725
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
nucleotide-excision repair [GO:0006289];
positive regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045070];
proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:0043161];
regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:0032434];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
damaged DNA binding [GO:0003684];
polyubiquitin binding [GO:0031593];
single-stranded DNA binding [GO:0003697];
ubiquitin-specific protease binding [GO:1990381]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
nucleus [GO:0005634];
proteasome complex [GO:0000502]
Protein-protein interaction111823
Phylogenetic treeP54725
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      Yes - Two siRNA pools inhibit HIV replication and inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV LTR is not observed
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.9221009141559650.005172464505621480.0149204564648281
AZA vs. DISU-0.02755266537985910.9132722329517260.994271142470137
AZA vs. IL70.120790056387850.5302943846096690.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2155934883368950.377603325999330.742498374134347
DISU vs. CD3-0.9624815432455970.008440123675646840.0251237837699439
DISU vs. IL70.1388497968674760.5818893486023130.868159488084752
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1852530944821090.5257715263892980.839187573961102
DMSO vs. AZA-0.009559680890963140.9545756931147881
DMSO vs. CD3-0.9437500527480470.003392741412320270.0098785561222661
DMSO vs. DISU0.01597445253917990.9478225738729220.993060195744053
DMSO vs. IL70.1378446993266530.4437521404569190.866592093088172
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2108682229113150.3715846066558110.719443937167231
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1036339669106950.8679012903801780.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.05270202529760370.7502145461195860.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7956009089194240.01372349256892820.0386715654311938
SAHA vs. CD3-1.160692289377160.001169301801955180.00409228475510092
SAHA vs. IL7-0.338224567079530.1653768124328090.387777277924957
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.31656 0.0185803
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.958 0.859 0.882 0.868 0.845
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1DV0 NMR - A=319-363.
1F4I NMR - A=319-363.
1IFY NMR - A=156-204.
1OQY NMR - A=1-363.
1P98 NMR - A=1-78.
1P9D NMR - U=1-78.
1QZE NMR - A=2-363.
1TP4 NMR - A=223-317.
1ZO6 Model - A=315-363.
2WYQ X-ray 1.6Å A=1-82.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr complexes with 24318982
Vpr cooperates with 20614012
Vpr inhibited by 9371639
Vpr binds 11426943
Vpr inhibits 11196199
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 18976975

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03420 Nucleotide excision repair - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04141 Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum - Homo sapiens (human)