Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0005384
UniProt IDP20701
Primary gene name(s)ITGAL
Synonym gene name(s)CD11A
Protein nameIntegrin alpha-L
Protein functionIntegrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is also a receptor for F11R, PubMed:11812992, PubMed:15528364. Involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing, and antibody dependent killing by granulocytes and monocytes. Contributes to natural killer cell cytotoxicity, PubMed:15356110. Involved in leukocyte adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes including T-cells and neutrophils, PubMed:11812992. Required for generation of common lymphoid progenitor cells in bone marrow, indicating a role in lymphopoiesis, By similarity. Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 in association with ICAM3, contributes to apoptotic neutrophil phagocytosis by macrophages, PubMed:23775590. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P24063, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11812992, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15356110, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15528364, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23775590}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16301335};
Single-pass type I membrane protein {ECO:0000255}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P20701
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell-matrix adhesion [GO:0007160];
extracellular matrix organization [GO:0030198];
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules [GO:0007157];
inflammatory response [GO:0006954];
integrin-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0007229];
leukocyte cell-cell adhesion [GO:0007159];
leukocyte migration [GO:0050900];
movement of cell or subcellular component [GO:0006928];
phagocytosis [GO:0006909];
receptor clustering [GO:0043113];
regulation of immune response [GO:0050776];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell [GO:0002291]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cell adhesion molecule binding [GO:0050839];
ICAM-3 receptor activity [GO:0030369];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell surface [GO:0009986];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
integrin alphaL-beta2 complex [GO:0034687];
integrin complex [GO:0008305];
membrane [GO:0016020];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction109889
Phylogenetic treeP20701
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.422366530791470.1979185796929260.30263049945539
AZA vs. DISU-0.3170985356446870.2098653319650760.799471825635976
AZA vs. IL7-0.1346087642886110.4821965640461320.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.8828523710375280.002300172601640060.0368467606770694
DISU vs. CD30.09283297252124740.7974635727086770.861100708811647
DISU vs. IL70.1729186844207510.4923886324176020.821566712632867
DISU vs. SAHA-0.563052194427340.07633645986197730.350005106960712
DMSO vs. AZA0.0971130842471260.5601661969863551
DMSO vs. CD30.5086823416751530.1128481894629420.188309478761544
DMSO vs. DISU0.4126605252958170.09105433262396480.55371956283302
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2244805518732780.2102045102292870.719751499176064
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.985305025527110.0003600812740484070.00878120530935849
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.3246010219604840.6017305843933850.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1826492604442390.266264655179170.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.2931284214003980.3626233620024210.500075199950823
SAHA vs. CD3-0.483238875121940.1829941603626180.281883266649231
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7505100410837860.007925580088399390.0535003234813154
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.595634 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.71 1.114 1.433 1.467 1.596
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00095 Efalizumab approved, investigational yes antibody
DB02177 1-Acetyl-4-(4-{4-[(2-Ethoxyphenyl)Thio]-3-Nitrophenyl}Pyridin-2-Yl)Piperazine experimental unknown unknown
DB03932 LFA703 experimental unknown unknown
DB04724 (S)-2-((S)-3-ISOBUTYL-2,5-DIOXO-4-QUINOLIN-3-YLMETHYL-[1,4]DIAZEPAN-1YL)-N-METHYL-3-NAPHTALEN-2-YL-PROPIONAMIDE experimental unknown unknown
DB00227 Lovastatin approved, investigational unknown other/unknown
DB00098 Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) approved yes unknown
DB06972 7A-[(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-6-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-oxo-2,3,5,7A-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-A]pyrrole-7-carbonitrile experimental unknown unknown
DB07486 3-({4-[(1E)-3-morpholin-4-yl-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl]-2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl}sulfanyl)aniline experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1CQP X-ray 2.6Å A/B=153-334.
1DGQ NMR - A=152-336.
1IJ4 Model - L=153-333.
1LFA X-ray 1.8Å A/B=150-336.
1MJN X-ray 1.3Å A=153-331.
1MQ8 X-ray 3.3Å B/D=155-331.
1MQ9 X-ray 2.0Å A=153-331.
1MQA X-ray 2.5Å A=153-331.
1RD4 X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D=150-336.
1T0P X-ray 1.6Å A=153-326.
1XDD X-ray 2.2Å A/B=152-336.
1XDG X-ray 2.1Å A/B=152-336.
1XUO X-ray 1.8Å A/B=152-336.
1ZON X-ray 2.0Å A=150-336.
1ZOO X-ray 3.0Å A/B=150-336.
1ZOP X-ray 2.0Å A/B=150-336.
2ICA X-ray 1.5Å A=154-332.
2K8O NMR - A=1113-1170.
2M3E NMR - A=1082-1128.
2O7N X-ray 1.7Å A=154-332.
3BN3 X-ray 2.1Å A=154-332.
3BQM X-ray 1.9Å B/C=153-334.
3BQN X-ray 1.8Å B/C=153-334.
3E2M X-ray 2.0Å A/B=152-334.
3EOA X-ray 2.8Å I/J=153-333.
3EOB X-ray 3.6Å I/J=153-333.
3F74 X-ray 1.7Å A/B/C=153-332.
3F78 X-ray 1.6Å A/B/C=153-332.
3HI6 X-ray 2.3Å A/B=153-332.
3M6F X-ray 1.8Å A=154-332.
3TCX X-ray 3.6Å B/D/F/H/J/L/N/P/R/T/V/X/Z/b=154-332.
4IXD X-ray 1.8Å A=152-336.
5E6R X-ray 2.9Å A=26-770.
5E6S X-ray 2.1Å A/C/E=26-770.
5E6U X-ray 2.5Å A=26-770.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor downregulates 9341793
Tat inhibits 9743356
Nef interacts with 8086129
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 22190034
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 15183063
Nef downregulates 19641037
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor inhibits 9341793
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 18264102
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 mediated by 15222882

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04514 Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05144 Malaria - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05150 Staphylococcus aureus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05323 Rheumatoid arthritis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)