Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0005016
UniProt IDP16278
Primary gene name(s)GLB1
Synonym gene name(s)ELNR1
Protein nameBeta-galactosidase
Protein functionCleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans.; FUNCTION: Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers, elastogenesis and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein, EBP, a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Subcellular locationIsoform 1: Lysosome.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 2: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Localized to the perinuclear area of the cytoplasm but not to lysosomes.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P16278
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular carbohydrate metabolic process [GO:0044262];
galactose catabolic process [GO:0019388];
glycosaminoglycan catabolic process [GO:0006027];
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687];
keratan sulfate catabolic process [GO:0042340]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
beta-galactosidase activity [GO:0004565];
exo-alpha-sialidase activity [GO:0004308];
galactoside binding [GO:0016936]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
vacuole [GO:0005773]
Protein-protein interaction108984
Phylogenetic treeP16278
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3912185653583630.233206198713580.34335096483453
AZA vs. DISU0.1386499947759160.5841446782665670.955158276076142
AZA vs. IL7-0.07184776591017420.7099438932867480.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1272071926198330.60309157753890.869037610154037
DISU vs. CD3-0.265402534858970.4643595991360590.593217309295928
DISU vs. IL7-0.2198969288926530.3837639279694660.753121417320375
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2638301280977220.3660893821176640.738592440893139
DMSO vs. AZA0.06773325230711540.6877050543855061
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3363376548945990.293365401684630.403280388391181
DMSO vs. DISU-0.07317950882219810.7645350864780380.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1321167618747490.4644548174359150.87615725294193
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2005254165232920.3961487131006430.740279882844363
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.02542832549294650.9674449014492160.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.07689205953327920.6435450976395860.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4563872853547980.1561663991263710.267518596889622
SAHA vs. CD3-0.542870993592280.1253767312673050.208822650331376
SAHA vs. IL7-0.05835879257495930.8110165109030890.91829511645408
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.365072 0.00588182
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.064 1.008 1.235 1.328 1.165
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3THC X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3THD X-ray 1.7Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WEZ X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WF0 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WF1 X-ray 2.0Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WF2 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WF3 X-ray 2.1Å A/B/C/D=24-677.
3WF4 X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=24-677.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00052 Galactose metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00511 Other glycan degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00531 Glycosaminoglycan degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00600 Sphingolipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00604 Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)