Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004971
UniProt IDQ92538
Primary gene name(s)GBF1
Synonym gene name(s)KIAA0248
Protein nameGolgi-specific brefeldin A-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1
Protein functionGuanine-nucleotide exchange factor, GEF for members of the Arf family of small GTPases involved in trafficking in the early secretory pathway; its GEF activity initiates the coating of nascent vesicles via the localized generation of activated ARFs through replacement of GDP with GTP. Recruitment to cis-Golgi membranes requires membrane association of Arf-GDP and can be regulated by ARF1, ARF3, ARF4 and ARF5. Involved in the recruitment of the COPI coat complex to the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites, ERES, and the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate, ERGIC and cis-Golgi compartments which implicates ARF1 activation. Involved in COPI vesicle-dependent retrograde transport from the ERGIC and cis-Golgi compartments to the endoplasmatic reticulum, ER, PubMed:16926190, PubMed:17956946, PubMed:18003980, PubMed:12047556, PubMed:12808027, PubMed:19039328, PubMed:24213530. Involved in the trans-Golgi network recruitment of GGA1, GGA2, GGA3, BIG1, BIG2, and the AP-1 adaptor protein complex related to chlathrin-dependent transport; the function requires its GEF activity, probably at least in part on ARF4 and ARF5, PubMed:23386609. Has GEF activity towards ARF1, PubMed:15616190. Has in vitro GEF activity towards ARF5, By similarity. Involved in the processing of PSAP, PubMed:17666033. Required for the assembly of the Golgi apparatus, PubMed:12808027, PubMed:18003980. The AMPK-phosphorylated form is involved in Golgi disassembly during mitotis and under stress conditions, PubMed:18063581, PubMed:23418352. May be involved in the COPI vesicle-dependent recruitment of PNPLA2 to lipid droplets; however, this function is under debate, PubMed:19461073, PubMed:22185782. In neutrophils, involved in G protein-coupled receptor, GPCR-mediated chemotaxis und superoxide production. Proposed to be recruited by phosphatidylinositol-phosphates generated upon GPCR stimulation to the leading edge where it recruits and activates ARF1, and is involved in recruitment of GIT2 and the NADPH oxidase complex, PubMed:22573891. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9R1D7, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12047556, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808027, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15616190, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16926190, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17666033, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17956946, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18003980, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18063581, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19461073, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22185782, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22573891, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23386609, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23418352, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24213530, ECO:0000305|PubMed:19039328, ECO:0000305|PubMed:22573891}.
Subcellular locationGolgi apparatus, cis-Golgi network {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12047556, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808027, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15616190}. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12808027}. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23386609}. Cytoplasm {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22573891}. Lipid droplet {ECO:0000269|PubMed:21789191}. Membrane;
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000305}. Note=Cycles rapidly on and off early Golgi membranes, PubMed:15616190. Stabilized on membranes when complexed with ARF1-GDP and is released from both ARF1 and membranes after it catalyzes GDP displacement and ARF1 binds GTP. Continuous cycles of recruitment and dissociation of GBF1 to membranes are required for sustained ARF activation and COP I recruitment, PubMed:15813748. In neutrophils is translocated from the Golgi to the leading edge upon GPCR stimulation, PubMed:22573891. Localization to lipid droplets is questionable, PubMed:22185782. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15616190, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22185782, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22573891, ECO:0000305|PubMed:15616190, ECO:0000305|PubMed:15813748}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q92538
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell activation involved in immune response [GO:0002263];
COPI coating of Golgi vesicle [GO:0048205];
endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment organization [GO:0097111];
ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport [GO:0006888];
establishment of monopolar cell polarity [GO:0061162];
Golgi disassembly [GO:0090166];
Golgi organization [GO:0007030];
Golgi to endosome transport [GO:0006895];
neutrophil chemotaxis [GO:0030593];
post-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport [GO:0006892];
protein localization to endoplasmic reticulum exit site [GO:0070973];
protein localization to endoplasmic reticulum tubular network [GO:1903420];
protein localization to Golgi apparatus [GO:0034067];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process [GO:1903409];
regulation of ARF protein signal transduction [GO:0032012];
regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0007346];
regulation of protein localization to cell surface [GO:2000008];
retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi [GO:0042147];
retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to ER [GO:0006890];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005086];
guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005085];
phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate binding [GO:0005547];
phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate binding [GO:0080025]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell leading edge [GO:0031252];
cis-Golgi network [GO:0005801];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment [GO:0005793];
endoplasmic reticulum lumen [GO:0005788];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
Golgi stack [GO:0005795];
lipid particle [GO:0005811];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
peroxisome [GO:0005777];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction114268
Phylogenetic treeQ92538
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.2297128976764970.4844555974866050.602899410892421
AZA vs. DISU0.07228163060507050.7749031127154950.976444104025318
AZA vs. IL70.156287247131250.4162406084808590.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.06950508961146010.7756088800896190.941353350035522
DISU vs. CD30.2892191960237680.4257468508132850.55757671843262
DISU vs. IL70.0747305241691790.7664939391923910.945255705517515
DISU vs. SAHA-0.0001721006625079160.9995294317795650.999735915229582
DMSO vs. AZA0.1071466599744680.5225147751769411
DMSO vs. CD30.3252904188735370.3098464171679310.421437005655009
DMSO vs. DISU0.03305008161827670.8921403804745960.988283279918411
DMSO vs. IL70.05651527844622060.7530916882735710.951631847120623
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.04308509840056930.8550544654696080.962018897148281
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.235297487097230.7057540684348230.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02739990054866610.8681003544123030.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.3920536428374890.2231922960141230.350910345031905
SAHA vs. CD30.2759345015464550.4375742140816490.550851508329333
SAHA vs. IL7-0.08920273741218490.7143069721933020.869236498796512
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0362632 0.851087
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.979 0.961 1.073 1.112 0.96
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)