Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004828
UniProt IDQ9Y4E1
Primary gene name(s)FAM21C
Synonym gene name(s)KIAA0592
Protein nameWASH complex subunit FAM21C
Protein functionActs at least in part as component of the WASH core complex whose assembly at the surface of endosomes inhibits WASH nucleation-promoting factor, NPF activity in recruiting and activating the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization and is involved in the fission of tubules that serve as transport intermediates during endosome sorting. Mediates the recruitment of the WASH core complex to endosome membranes via binding to phospholipids and VPS35 of the retromer CSC. Mediates the recruitment of the F-actin-capping protein dimer to the WASH core complex probably promoting localized F-actin polymerization needed for vesicle scission, PubMed:19922874, PubMed:20498093, PubMed:22513087, PubMed:23331060. Via its C-terminus binds various phospholipids, most strongly phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, PtdIns-(4P, phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, PtdIns-(5P and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PtdIns-(3,5P2. Involved in the endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking and recycling of SNX27-retromer-dependent cargo proteins, such as GLUT1, PubMed:25278552. Required for the association of DNAJC13, SDCCAG3, ANKRD50 with retromer CSC subunit VPS35, PubMed:24980502. Required for the endosomal recruitment of CCC complex subunits COMMD1, CCDC93 AND C16orf62, PubMed:25355947. Plays a role in fluid-phase endocytosis, a process exploited by vaccinia intracellular mature virus, IMV to enter cells. As a result, may facilitate the penetration of IMV into cells, PubMed:18550675. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18550675, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19922874, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20498093, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22513087, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23331060, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24980502, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25278552, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25355947}.
Subcellular locationEarly endosome membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20498093}. Cell membrane. Note=Partially colocalizes with RAB11A, a recycling endosome marker. Associates with lipid raft microdomains on the plasma membrane.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y4E1
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
negative regulation of barbed-end actin filament capping [GO:2000813];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading [GO:1900024];
retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi [GO:0042147];
retrograde transport, endosome to plasma membrane [GO:1990126]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate binding [GO:0005547];
phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate binding [GO:0043325];
phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate binding [GO:0080025];
phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate binding [GO:0032266];
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding [GO:0005546];
phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate binding [GO:0070273];
phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate binding [GO:0010314]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
early endosome [GO:0005769];
early endosome membrane [GO:0031901];
endosome [GO:0005768];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
WASH complex [GO:0071203]
Protein-protein interaction128984
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y4E1
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.169405144556570.0004247511060815330.00172046457158314
AZA vs. DISU0.471359341882930.06291507310417680.554017746098172
AZA vs. IL7-0.08888484934422010.644175582584320.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3255624565299450.1826760445254740.545562582452314
DISU vs. CD31.626924697216721.18051424415899e-058.62582245101922e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.5691794134872810.02422801340677570.198390712714364
DISU vs. SAHA-0.795026463714480.006664537283592510.0787157064271338
DMSO vs. AZA-0.02488724153191570.8820618202968581
DMSO vs. CD31.13332693578040.0004651998831789460.00175162115473402
DMSO vs. DISU-0.4979176015116490.04175421238585360.40826560355387
DMSO vs. IL7-0.05687176928021380.7520487513014540.951631847120623
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3072674686077740.1930634291402890.529125102850209
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.09131735367846020.8834134045449820.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1055468746598790.523120340503830.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.087853687640980.0008143407951574090.00355750564494548
SAHA vs. CD30.8191001605988080.0212554075588050.0484670891074581
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2402571513213250.3242692649362550.573889663475028
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.130459 0.418133
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.986 1.027 1.041 1.095 0.985
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Rev interacts with 15847701
Rev inhibited by 20827171
Rev co-localizes with 15847701
Pr55(Gag) regulated by 20827171

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)