Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004430
UniProt IDP07339
Primary gene name(s)CTSD
Synonym gene name(s)CPSD
Protein nameCathepsin D
Protein functionAcid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Plays a role in APP processing following cleavage and activation by ADAM30 which leads to APP degradation, PubMed:27333034. Involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27333034}.
Subcellular locationLysosome. Melanosome. Secreted, extracellular space. Note=Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. In aortic samples, detected as an extracellular protein loosely bound to the matrix, PubMed:20551380. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20551380}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P07339
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II [GO:0019886];
autophagy [GO:0006914];
collagen catabolic process [GO:0030574];
protein catabolic process [GO:0030163]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
aspartic-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004190];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004197];
serine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004252]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
melanosome [GO:0042470];
membrane raft [GO:0045121]
Protein-protein interaction107889
Phylogenetic treeP07339
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-2.465811260800794.58290072558043e-118.51311874853107e-10
AZA vs. DISU0.274478274922220.3809005172641940.899651703517147
AZA vs. IL7-0.3042335317129570.3199891682941870.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3102200678012320.3183506341641280.688923605934606
DISU vs. CD32.728477056707697.32913729706297e-122.26857116254471e-10
DISU vs. IL7-0.5891079036461090.07178679843899230.356216585407442
DISU vs. SAHA-0.5809144386271470.07807668242222170.354319084849534
DMSO vs. AZA-0.005914324017965780.980866988546881
DMSO vs. CD32.45118469841558.47877323906232e-131.85928266152073e-11
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2815985121295190.3060497197932330.811513935329872
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2911710446170110.2730410048844710.769611926666466
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3089220437860010.2555916519735570.604773145258343
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4265532639745350.5135614599333220.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2692948375270170.1027335738171140.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD32.165086587886569.17008680101361e-091.37497689840641e-07
SAHA vs. CD32.134432759031653.52472502296308e-084.1726320578204e-07
SAHA vs. IL7-0.007085772076301810.9827301980933220.993710617125574
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0318463 0.882499
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.967 1.269 1.58 1.759 1.542
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02216 S-Methylcysteine experimental unknown unknown
DB03028 1h-Benoximidazole-2-Carboxylic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB03096 N-Aminoethylmorpholine experimental unknown unknown
DB00030 Insulin Human approved, investigational unknown unknown
DB00071 Insulin Pork approved unknown unknown
DB07542 5-AMINO-6-CYCLOHEXYL-4-HYDROXY-2-ISOBUTYL-HEXANOIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB08740 CYCLOHEXYLMETHYL-2,3-DIHYDROXY-5-METHYL-HEXYLAMIDE experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1LYA X-ray 2.5Å A/C=65-161# B/D=170-410.
1LYB X-ray 2.5Å A/C=65-161# B/D=170-410.
1LYW X-ray 2.5Å A/C/E/G=65-161# B/D/F/H=170-410.
4OBZ X-ray 2.9Å A/C=60-162# B/D=170-412.
4OC6 X-ray 2.6Å A=60-162# B=170-412.
4OD9 X-ray 1.9Å A/C=60-162# B/D=170-412.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 cleaved by 19939935
Nef induces release of 17670831
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 22190034
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor co-localizes with 21909273
Tat co-localizes with 25653352
Vpr upregulates 23874603
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 modified by 10623764

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04071 Sphingolipid signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)