Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004429
UniProt IDP07858
Primary gene name(s)CTSB
Synonym gene name(s)CPSB
Protein nameCathepsin B
Protein functionThiol protease which is believed to participate in intracellular degradation and turnover of proteins. Has also been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis.
Subcellular locationLysosome. Melanosome. Secreted, extracellular space {ECO:0000250}. Note=Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P07858
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to thyroid hormone stimulus [GO:0097067];
collagen catabolic process [GO:0030574];
decidualization [GO:0046697];
epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030855];
proteolysis [GO:0006508];
proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process [GO:0051603];
regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0042981];
regulation of catalytic activity [GO:0050790];
toll-like receptor signaling pathway [GO:0002224];
viral entry into host cell [GO:0046718]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
collagen binding [GO:0005518];
cysteine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004197];
cysteine-type peptidase activity [GO:0008234];
peptidase activity [GO:0008233];
peptide binding [GO:0042277];
proteoglycan binding [GO:0043394];
serine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0004252]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
caveola [GO:0005901];
endolysosome lumen [GO:0036021];
external side of plasma membrane [GO:0009897];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
intracellular [GO:0005622];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
melanosome [GO:0042470];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
sarcolemma [GO:0042383]
Protein-protein interaction107888
Phylogenetic treeP07858
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4631243182364090.1617398904863640.258208201399267
AZA vs. DISU0.2266927995802740.3696100650690970.896211275303082
AZA vs. IL7-0.1207688793613580.5292269577053630.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.1428897635748250.5576846592188420.850089852671133
DISU vs. CD3-0.2491945564011450.4946027580144490.620786176045779
DISU vs. IL7-0.3567924266511750.1567505839083660.513252617814645
DISU vs. SAHA-0.08127285407362530.7799523988590460.939599389310109
DMSO vs. AZA0.02966167938985050.8591314664346831
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4471506881745430.1665762561666340.258176059583369
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1994909089793440.4129770912522050.872327671612622
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1428426774190780.4261878808054530.856123162125282
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1083388177794830.6455079886279560.885934878117833
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.2136354053651680.7587352203344030.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1056546789245120.5208079903452180.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.5773609601450560.07668738604992290.154388803249698
SAHA vs. CD3-0.3438573862014070.3327853250952340.448094607682736
SAHA vs. IL70.2610075375946170.284093826851040.531780745803126
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.587742 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.105 0.985 1.265 1.557 1.366
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02108 2-Aminoethanimidic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02148 3-Amino-4-Oxybenzyl-2-Butanone experimental unknown unknown
DB02685 3-Methylphenylalanine experimental unknown unknown
DB03329 2-Pyridinethiol experimental unknown unknown
DB03588 Diphenylacetic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB04579 N-{[(2S,3S)-3-(ETHOXYCARBONYL)OXIRAN-2-YL]CARBONYL}- experimental unknown unknown
DB02855 N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline experimental unknown unknown
DB07160 N-{[(2S,3S)-3-(ETHOXYCARBONYL)OXIRAN-2-YL]CARBONYL}-L-ISOLEUCINE experimental unknown unknown
DB07224 N-{[(2S,3S)-3-(ETHOXYCARBONYL)OXIRAN-2-YL]CARBONYL}-L-ISOLEUCYL-L-ALANINE experimental unknown unknown
DB07225 N-{[(2S,3S)-3-(ETHOXYCARBONYL)OXIRAN-2-YL]CARBONYL}-L-ISOLEUCYL-L-ISOLEUCINE experimental unknown unknown
DB07231 N-({(2S,3S)-3-[(BENZYLAMINO)CARBONYL]OXIRAN-2-YL}CARBONYL)-L-ISOLEUCYL-L-PROLINE experimental unknown unknown
DB04126 N-[1-Hydroxycarboxyethyl-Carbonyl]Leucylamino-2-Methyl-Butane experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1CSB X-ray 2.0Å A/D=80-126# B/E=129-333.
1GMY X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C=79-339.
1HUC X-ray 2.1Å A/C=80-126# B/D=129-333.
1PBH X-ray 3.2Å A=18-333.
2IPP X-ray 2.1Å A=80-126# B=129-333.
2PBH X-ray 3.3Å A=18-333.
3AI8 X-ray 2.1Å A/B=78-333.
3CBJ X-ray 1.8Å A=74-339.
3CBK X-ray 2.6Å A=74-339.
3K9M X-ray 2.6Å A/B=80-333.
3PBH X-ray 2.5Å A=18-333.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 23867815
Vpr upregulates 23874603
Pr55(Gag) regulated by 22138708
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 24162774

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04612 Antigen processing and presentation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04621 NOD-like receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04924 Renin secretion - Homo sapiens (human)