Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004428
UniProt IDP10619
Primary gene name(s)CTSA
Synonym gene name(s)PPGB
Protein nameLysosomal protective protein
Protein functionProtective protein appears to be essential for both the activity of beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase, it associates with these enzymes and exerts a protective function necessary for their stability and activity. This protein is also a carboxypeptidase and can deamidate tachykinins. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1907282}.
Subcellular locationLysosome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P10619
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687];
intracellular protein transport [GO:0006886];
negative regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy [GO:1904715];
proteolysis [GO:0006508];
proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process [GO:0051603];
regulation of chaperone-mediated autophagy [GO:1904714];
regulation of protein stability [GO:0031647]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
carboxypeptidase activity [GO:0004180];
enzyme activator activity [GO:0008047];
exo-alpha-sialidase activity [GO:0004308];
serine-type carboxypeptidase activity [GO:0004185]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
lysosomal lumen [GO:0043202];
lysosome [GO:0005764];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction111472
Phylogenetic treeP10619
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.6091926512221220.0647617020262540.123290182258393
AZA vs. DISU0.2571898099264450.3102700391615310.866242136589333
AZA vs. IL7-0.0853540416052870.6988705133427060.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.4969653970503120.06957335715648010.324790580915695
DISU vs. CD30.8535454094515310.01952353832577550.0504020922628429
DISU vs. IL7-0.3525184681795410.163325390063440.524750693777998
DISU vs. SAHA0.2430695055870150.4063139035809880.763664760862142
DMSO vs. AZA0.0325391265723170.8480179933491711
DMSO vs. CD30.6306382995534890.04993786646016750.0962777013338141
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2263665870952210.3542719877941250.845295578681978
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1105270965767830.5412031259383270.896696737481162
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4599196129067050.05309934953446530.261773742122713
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2740506984952610.6630810042490450.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.0823521262115040.620049896373590.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.5283415415422880.1012680435063570.191875309123192
SAHA vs. CD31.083862375000040.002673525369262350.00831236379508637
SAHA vs. IL70.5809188745476550.03957439649398090.156531102887287
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.239514 0.098539
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.008 1.07 1.11 1.191 1.097
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
200661_at 1.62 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1IVY X-ray 2.2Å A/B=29-480.
3BP4 X-ray 1.8Å C=2-10.
3BP7 X-ray 1.8Å C=2-10.
3BXN X-ray 1.8Å C=2-10.
4AZ0 X-ray 2.1Å A=29-326# B=327-480.
4AZ3 X-ray 2.0Å A=29-326# B=327-480.
4CI9 X-ray 1.5Å A=29-480.
4CIA X-ray 1.9Å A=29-480.
4CIB X-ray 1.8Å A=29-480.
4MWS X-ray 2.8Å A/B=29-480.
4MWT X-ray 3.8Å A/B=29-480.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr upregulates 23874603

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04142 Lysosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04614 Renin-angiotensin system - Homo sapiens (human)