Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004425
UniProt IDP35222
Primary gene name(s)CTNNB1
Synonym gene name(s)CTNNB
Protein nameCatenin beta-1
Protein functionKey downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. Acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion. Involved in the CDK2/PTPN6/CTNNB1/CEACAM1 pathway of insulin internalization. Blocks anoikis of malignant kidney and intestinal epithelial cells and promotes their anchorage-independent growth by down-regulating DAPK2. Disrupts PML function and PML-NB formation by inhibiting RANBP2-mediated sumoylation of PML, PubMed:17524503, PubMed:18077326, PubMed:18086858, PubMed:18957423, PubMed:21262353, PubMed:22647378, PubMed:22699938, PubMed:22155184. Promotes neurogenesis by maintaining sympathetic neuroblasts within the cell cycle, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q02248, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17524503, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18077326, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18086858, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18957423, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21262353, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22155184, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22647378, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22699938}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Nucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:24342833}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell junction, adherens junction. Cell junction. Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:24342833}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle pole. Note=Colocalized with RAPGEF2 and TJP1 at cell-cell contacts, By similarity. Cytoplasmic when it is unstabilized, high level of phosphorylation or bound to CDH1. Translocates to the nucleus when it is stabilized, low level of phosphorylation. Interaction with GLIS2 and MUC1 promotes nuclear translocation. Interaction with EMD inhibits nuclear localization. The majority of beta-catenin is localized to the cell membrane. In interphase, colocalizes with CROCC between CEP250 puncta at the proximal end of centrioles, and this localization is dependent on CROCC and CEP250. In mitosis, when NEK2 activity increases, it localizes to centrosomes at spindle poles independent of CROCC. Colocalizes with CDK5 in the cell-cell contacts and plasma membrane of undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma cells. {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P35222
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adherens junction assembly [GO:0034333];
androgen receptor signaling pathway [GO:0030521];
anterior/posterior axis specification [GO:0009948];
beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly [GO:1904886];
beta-catenin-TCF complex assembly [GO:1904837];
bone resorption [GO:0045453];
branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis [GO:0001658];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0060070];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation [GO:1904954];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0044336];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of cardiac outflow tract cell proliferation [GO:0061324];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0044334];
catenin import into nucleus [GO:0035411];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
cell fate specification [GO:0001708];
cell-matrix adhesion [GO:0007160];
cell maturation [GO:0048469];
cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation [GO:0000904];
cellular response to growth factor stimulus [GO:0071363];
cellular response to indole-3-methanol [GO:0071681];
central nervous system vasculogenesis [GO:0022009];
chemical synaptic transmission [GO:0007268];
chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription [GO:0048096];
cranial ganglion development [GO:0061550];
cranial skeletal system development [GO:1904888];
dorsal/ventral axis specification [GO:0009950];
dorsal root ganglion development [GO:1990791];
ectoderm development [GO:0007398];
embryonic axis specification [GO:0000578];
embryonic brain development [GO:1990403];
embryonic digit morphogenesis [GO:0042733];
embryonic foregut morphogenesis [GO:0048617];
embryonic forelimb morphogenesis [GO:0035115];
embryonic heart tube development [GO:0035050];
embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis [GO:0035116];
embryonic skeletal limb joint morphogenesis [GO:0036023];
endodermal cell fate commitment [GO:0001711];
endothelial tube morphogenesis [GO:0061154];
epithelial cell differentiation involved in prostate gland development [GO:0060742];
epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0001837];
epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis [GO:0060441];
fungiform papilla formation [GO:0061198];
gastrulation with mouth forming second [GO:0001702];
genitalia morphogenesis [GO:0035112];
glial cell fate determination [GO:0007403];
hair cell differentiation [GO:0035315];
hair follicle morphogenesis [GO:0031069];
hair follicle placode formation [GO:0060789];
hindbrain development [GO:0030902];
in utero embryonic development [GO:0001701];
layer formation in cerebral cortex [GO:0021819];
lens morphogenesis in camera-type eye [GO:0002089];
lung-associated mesenchyme development [GO:0060484];
lung cell differentiation [GO:0060479];
lung induction [GO:0060492];
male genitalia development [GO:0030539];
mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development [GO:0060916];
metanephros morphogenesis [GO:0003338];
midbrain dopaminergic neuron differentiation [GO:1904948];
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001234];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation [GO:0032331];
negative regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephros morphogenesis [GO:0003340];
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO:0045976];
negative regulation of neuron death [GO:1901215];
negative regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation [GO:0048715];
negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation [GO:0045671];
negative regulation of protein sumoylation [GO:0033234];
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045892];
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0000122];
nephron tubule formation [GO:0072079];
neural plate development [GO:0001840];
neuron migration [GO:0001764];
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth [GO:0042475];
oocyte development [GO:0048599];
osteoclast differentiation [GO:0030316];
oviduct development [GO:0060066];
pancreas development [GO:0031016];
patterning of blood vessels [GO:0001569];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription [GO:1904501];
positive regulation of core promoter binding [GO:1904798];
positive regulation of determination of dorsal identity [GO:2000017];
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription, initiation [GO:2000144];
positive regulation of endothelial cell differentiation [GO:0045603];
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in prostate gland development [GO:0060769];
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO:0010718];
positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0045743];
positive regulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process [GO:0010909];
positive regulation of histone H3-K4 methylation [GO:0051571];
positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling [GO:0043123];
positive regulation of MAPK cascade [GO:0043410];
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation [GO:0002053];
positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051149];
positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation [GO:0002052];
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043525];
positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation [GO:0045669];
positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity [GO:0051091];
positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development [GO:0048643];
positive regulation of telomerase activity [GO:0051973];
positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase [GO:0032212];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
positive regulation of type I interferon production [GO:0032481];
proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process [GO:0043161];
protein localization to cell surface [GO:0034394];
proximal/distal pattern formation [GO:0009954];
regulation of angiogenesis [GO:0045765];
regulation of calcium ion import [GO:0090279];
regulation of centriole-centriole cohesion [GO:0030997];
regulation of centromeric sister chromatid cohesion [GO:0070602];
regulation of euchromatin binding [GO:1904793];
regulation of fibroblast proliferation [GO:0048145];
regulation of myelination [GO:0031641];
regulation of nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0072182];
regulation of neurogenesis [GO:0050767];
regulation of protein localization to cell surface [GO:2000008];
regulation of secondary heart field cardioblast proliferation [GO:0003266];
regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:0048660];
regulation of T cell proliferation [GO:0042129];
renal inner medulla development [GO:0072053];
renal outer medulla development [GO:0072054];
renal vesicle formation [GO:0072033];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to estradiol [GO:0032355];
single organismal cell-cell adhesion [GO:0016337];
smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051145];
stem cell population maintenance [GO:0019827];
sympathetic ganglion development [GO:0061549];
synapse organization [GO:0050808];
synaptic vesicle transport [GO:0048489];
T cell differentiation in thymus [GO:0033077];
thymus development [GO:0048538];
trachea formation [GO:0060440];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351];
Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0016055];
Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway [GO:0007223]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
alpha-catenin binding [GO:0045294];
androgen receptor binding [GO:0050681];
cadherin binding [GO:0045296];
double-stranded DNA binding [GO:0003690];
enzyme binding [GO:0019899];
estrogen receptor binding [GO:0030331];
euchromatin binding [GO:1990188];
ion channel binding [GO:0044325];
I-SMAD binding [GO:0070411];
kinase binding [GO:0019900];
nuclear hormone receptor binding [GO:0035257];
protein C-terminus binding [GO:0008022];
protein phosphatase binding [GO:0019903];
RNA polymerase II activating transcription factor binding [GO:0001102];
RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding [GO:0001085];
R-SMAD binding [GO:0070412];
signal transducer activity [GO:0004871];
SMAD binding [GO:0046332];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription factor binding [GO:0008134];
transcription regulatory region DNA binding [GO:0044212]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
adherens junction [GO:0005912];
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
basolateral plasma membrane [GO:0016323];
beta-catenin destruction complex [GO:0030877];
beta-catenin-TCF7L2 complex [GO:0070369];
beta-catenin-TCF complex [GO:1990907];
bicellular tight junction [GO:0005923];
catenin complex [GO:0016342];
cell-cell adherens junction [GO:0005913];
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cell cortex [GO:0005938];
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cell periphery [GO:0071944];
centrosome [GO:0005813];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
dendritic shaft [GO:0043198];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
fascia adherens [GO:0005916];
flotillin complex [GO:0016600];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
lamellipodium [GO:0030027];
lateral plasma membrane [GO:0016328];
membrane [GO:0016020];
microvillus membrane [GO:0031528];
nuclear euchromatin [GO:0005719];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
protein-DNA complex [GO:0032993];
Scrib-APC-beta-catenin complex [GO:0034750];
spindle pole [GO:0000922];
synapse [GO:0045202];
transcription factor complex [GO:0005667];
Wnt signalosome [GO:1990909];
Z disc [GO:0030018]
Protein-protein interaction107880
Phylogenetic treeP35222
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3161935577422240.333821372256960.45466796698508
AZA vs. DISU0.04032099200297340.87313604952650.991631204917382
AZA vs. IL7-0.05418304814605330.777597492879730.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1844905272872230.4489250746026450.79119567105814
DISU vs. CD3-0.2888072889160660.425314194291350.557203734116792
DISU vs. IL7-0.1035710947466090.6805199832602540.914002288200237
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2233474521979680.4428109528827760.78775099143724
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03357244613450610.8407438978408691
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3609106290521350.2587735385457060.365831857839153
DMSO vs. DISU-0.07571171623205560.7559580162749360.969857060964769
DMSO vs. IL7-0.01333726113748010.9407361919110430.988794358501781
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.157784883031120.5027859598295370.81592410903316
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.135233018065570.8277143200492160.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1078620753629970.5122045611075840.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3629461331814730.2583071403602290.39096285971709
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5253646989841910.1375564060783040.224737103165659
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1338687859190620.5819904149989790.785531821627132
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0343361 0.858489
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.042 1.367 3.224 3.299 1.054
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03904 Urea approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1G3J X-ray 2.1Å A/C=133-664.
1JDH X-ray 1.9Å A=135-663.
1JPW X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C=131-670.
1LUJ X-ray 2.5Å A=150-663.
1P22 X-ray 2.9Å C=19-44.
1QZ7 X-ray 2.2Å A=133-665.
1T08 X-ray 2.1Å A=146-664.
1TH1 X-ray 2.5Å A/B=133-664.
2G57 NMR - A=19-44.
2GL7 X-ray 2.6Å A/D=138-686.
2Z6H X-ray 2.2Å A=138-781.
3DIW X-ray 2.1Å C/D=772-781.
3FQN X-ray 1.6Å C=30-39.
3FQR X-ray 1.7Å C=30-39.
3SL9 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/E/G=141-305.
3SLA X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D/E=141-306.
3TX7 X-ray 2.7Å A=138-663.
4DJS X-ray 3.0Å A=148-665.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu interacts with 18256147
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 downregulates 23281130
Nef interacts with 24130899
retropepsin cleaves 22944692
Tat inhibited by 23152614
Tat induces phosphorylation of 24965120
Tat regulated by 19778269
Vpu stabilizes 14561767
Tat downregulates 21744004
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 22156527

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04310 Wnt signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04390 Hippo signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04550 Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04916 Melanogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04919 Thyroid hormone signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05213 Endometrial cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05215 Prostate cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05216 Thyroid cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05217 Basal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05224 Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05412 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - Homo sapiens (human)