Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004172
UniProt IDP60953
Primary gene name(s)CDC42
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameCell division control protein 42 homolog
Protein functionPlasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses. Involved in epithelial cell polarization processes. Regulates the bipolar attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores before chromosome congression in metaphase. Plays a role in the extension and maintenance of the formation of thin, actin-rich surface projections called filopodia. Mediates CDC42-dependent cell migration. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14978216, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15642749, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17038317}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000305};
Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000305};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000305}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Midbody. Note=Localizes to spindle during prometaphase cells. Moves to the central spindle as cells progressed through anaphase to telophase. Localizes at the end of cytokinesis in the intercellular bridge formed between two daughter cells. Its localization is regulated by the activities of guanine nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 and GTPase activating protein RACGAP1. Colocalizes with NEK6 in the centrosome.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P60953
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton organization [GO:0030036];
actin filament branching [GO:0090135];
actin filament bundle assembly [GO:0051017];
adherens junction organization [GO:0034332];
blood coagulation [GO:0007596];
canonical Wnt signaling pathway [GO:0060070];
cardiac conduction system development [GO:0003161];
cellular protein localization [GO:0034613];
dendritic cell migration [GO:0036336];
ephrin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048013];
epithelial cell-cell adhesion [GO:0090136];
epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling [GO:0060684];
establishment of Golgi localization [GO:0051683];
establishment or maintenance of apical/basal cell polarity [GO:0035088];
establishment or maintenance of cell polarity [GO:0007163];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
filopodium assembly [GO:0046847];
Golgi organization [GO:0007030];
hair follicle morphogenesis [GO:0031069];
hair follicle placode formation [GO:0060789];
heart contraction [GO:0060047];
keratinization [GO:0031424];
keratinocyte development [GO:0003334];
macrophage differentiation [GO:0030225];
multicellular organism growth [GO:0035264];
negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0042059];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of protein complex assembly [GO:0031333];
neuron fate determination [GO:0048664];
nuclear migration [GO:0007097];
organelle transport along microtubule [GO:0072384];
positive regulation of cell growth [GO:0030307];
positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO:0032467];
positive regulation of DNA replication [GO:0045740];
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis [GO:0060501];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
positive regulation of hair follicle cell proliferation [GO:0071338];
positive regulation of intracellular protein transport [GO:0090316];
positive regulation of JNK cascade [GO:0046330];
positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051149];
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043525];
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033138];
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity [GO:0043552];
positive regulation of pseudopodium assembly [GO:0031274];
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading [GO:1900026];
positive regulation of synapse structural plasticity [GO:0051835];
regulation of attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore [GO:0051988];
regulation of filopodium assembly [GO:0051489];
regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO:0007088];
regulation of protein catabolic process [GO:0042176];
regulation of protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0043497];
regulation of protein kinase activity [GO:0045859];
regulation of protein stability [GO:0031647];
regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0051056];
small GTPase mediated signal transduction [GO:0007264];
sprouting angiogenesis [GO:0002040];
submandibular salivary gland formation [GO:0060661];
substantia nigra development [GO:0021762];
T cell costimulation [GO:0031295];
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048010];
viral RNA genome replication [GO:0039694];
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway [GO:0060071]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding [GO:0034191];
GTPase activity [GO:0003924];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
protein kinase binding [GO:0019901];
thioesterase binding [GO:0031996];
ubiquitin protein ligase activity [GO:0061630]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule [GO:0036464];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
filopodium [GO:0030175];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
leading edge membrane [GO:0031256];
membrane [GO:0016020];
microtubule organizing center [GO:0005815];
midbody [GO:0030496];
mitotic spindle [GO:0072686];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025];
neuron projection [GO:0043005];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
secretory granule [GO:0030141];
spindle midzone [GO:0051233];
storage vacuole [GO:0000322]
Protein-protein interaction107433
Phylogenetic treeP60953
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3702009148143140.2618287618401990.376015540586515
AZA vs. DISU-0.05343394103673840.8323859819955730.985880438258311
AZA vs. IL70.20369390532040.2879592087689290.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3141167765424240.197130464258270.564610415776014
DISU vs. CD3-0.43614332568160.2349544734768260.359673375971328
DISU vs. IL70.2477363623294860.3253735699118930.70591991150808
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2590573832914230.3734339554519910.743297969777744
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03315465498002540.8424326352366031
DMSO vs. CD3-0.4128339084207470.1997492966998170.298726990333744
DMSO vs. DISU0.01893982688041860.9380258040116970.992073048386292
DMSO vs. IL70.2437540572066040.1739090690978070.683904150417244
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2878894906883570.2212457340547380.5661111134022
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1002761483294230.8719944682151840.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04349603750615650.7915387019058710.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.1593525004861770.6208827151954410.734581253229269
SAHA vs. CD3-0.7082742213090750.04764649314058520.095157327889746
SAHA vs. IL7-0.520581112251540.03266034584310330.138331568766209
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3035 0.04847

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1 0.754534659 -1.3 0.010615048 -2 0.00088759
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.753041 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.026 0.967 0.871 0.922 0.944
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB02623 Aminophosphonic Acid-Guanylate Ester experimental unknown unknown
DB04315 Guanosine-5&,39;-Diphosphate experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1A4R X-ray 2.5Å A/B=1-191.
1AJE NMR - A=1-187.
1AM4 X-ray 2.7Å D/E/F=2-177.
1AN0 X-ray 2.8Å A/B=1-190.
1CEE NMR - A=1-179.
1CF4 NMR - A=1-184.
1DOA X-ray 2.6Å A=1-188.
1E0A NMR - A=1-184.
1EES NMR - A=1-178.
1GRN X-ray 2.1Å A=1-191.
1GZS X-ray 2.3Å A/C=1-178.
1KI1 X-ray 2.3Å A/C=1-188.
1KZ7 X-ray 2.4Å B/D=1-188.
1KZG X-ray 2.6Å B/D=1-188.
1NF3 X-ray 2.1Å A/B=2-191.
2ASE NMR - A=1-178.
2DFK X-ray 2.1Å B/D=1-191.
2KB0 NMR - A=1-178.
2NGR X-ray 1.9Å A=1-191.
2ODB X-ray 2.4Å A=1-181.
2QRZ X-ray 2.4Å A/B=1-189.
2WM9 X-ray 2.2Å B=1-188.
2WMN X-ray 2.3Å B=1-188.
2WMO X-ray 2.2Å B=1-188.
3GCG X-ray 2.3Å A=2-178.
3QBV X-ray 2.6Å A/C=1-178.
3VHL X-ray 2.0Å B=1-188.
4DID X-ray 2.3Å A=1-183.
4ITR X-ray 2.3Å C/D=1-191.
4JS0 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-178.
4YC7 X-ray 2.5Å A=1-179.
4YDH X-ray 3.8Å B/D=1-179.
5CJP X-ray 2.6Å A/B/C/D=1-177.
5FI1 X-ray 3.2Å B=1-191.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef interacts with 8994833
Nef inhibits 16687395
Nef enhances 22721673
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 activates 21562048
Nef upregulates 10366564

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04010 MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04014 Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04062 Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04360 Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04370 VEGF signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04666 Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04722 Neurotrophin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04912 GnRH signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05120 Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05211 Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05212 Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)