Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0004153
UniProt IDP16070
Primary gene name(s)CD44
Synonym gene name(s)LHR, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4
Protein nameCD44 antigen
Protein functionReceptor for hyaluronic acid, HA. Mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through its affinity for HA, and possibly also through its affinity for other ligands such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs. Adhesion with HA plays an important role in cell migration, tumor growth and progression. In cancer cells, may play an important role in invadopodia formation. Also involved in lymphocyte activation, recirculation and homing, and in hematopoiesis. Altered expression or dysfunction causes numerous pathogenic phenotypes. Great protein heterogeneity due to numerous alternative splicing and post-translational modification events. Receptor for LGALS9; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T, iTreg cell stability and suppressive function, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P15379, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16541107}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P15379};
Single-pass type I membrane protein {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P15379}. Note=Colocalizes with actin in membrane protrusions at wounding edges. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P15379}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P16070
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cartilage development [GO:0051216];
cell-matrix adhesion [GO:0007160];
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus [GO:0044344];
extracellular matrix disassembly [GO:0022617];
extracellular matrix organization [GO:0030198];
hyaluronan catabolic process [GO:0030214];
interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway [GO:0060333];
leukocyte migration [GO:0050900];
monocyte aggregation [GO:0070487];
negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043066];
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0043154];
negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:0043518];
negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by p53 class mediator [GO:1902166];
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade [GO:0070374];
positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion [GO:0034116];
positive regulation of monocyte aggregation [GO:1900625];
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033138];
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation [GO:0050731];
single organismal cell-cell adhesion [GO:0016337]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
collagen binding [GO:0005518];
hyaluronic acid binding [GO:0005540];
hyalurononglucosaminidase activity [GO:0004415]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell surface [GO:0009986];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
macrophage migration inhibitory factor receptor complex [GO:0035692];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction107398
Phylogenetic treeP16070
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.4255777236932140.3449662861066740.465681313407952
AZA vs. DISU0.0205830485686320.9349557986023530.995042856396371
AZA vs. IL7-0.3194595719523290.09555135005755170.824387308020595
AZA vs. SAHA-0.05699477794823410.8149683779452550.95304910158264
DISU vs. CD3-0.4175852050556220.3509040977585220.484788595876818
DISU vs. IL7-0.3490319609976890.1652126990577960.52744206655999
DISU vs. SAHA-0.07687846832107670.791752516007220.944722036335711
DMSO vs. AZA-0.09393222244576770.573059941009991
DMSO vs. CD3-0.5320247216869710.2302301894452990.333886966114115
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1167955822496490.6312692501909010.945704536396344
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2180942037477360.2234682017638620.730755562167075
DMSO vs. SAHA0.02989195849923640.8988578620810160.975160308407746
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1387155156067120.8875489460368530.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02183398919817370.8946236231540210.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7367778685077820.1004949757301840.190775915513988
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5083104605908970.2612430795340390.372462933640299
SAHA vs. IL70.2577850344242850.2892272288989770.536064336459262
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
-1.2 0.087705998 -1.3 0.012816654 -1.7 0.000411536
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -1.00997 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.968 1.162 0.686 0.652 1.2
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
204489_s_at 1.29 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
204490_s_at 1.57 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
209835_x_at 1.8 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
212014_x_at 1.77 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
212063_at 1.36 No downregulated in CD8+ cells
217523_at 1.56 No downregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB08818 Hyaluronic acid approved, vet_approved yes unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1POZ NMR - A=20-178.
1UUH X-ray 2.2Å A/B=20-178.
2I83 NMR - A=21-178.
4PZ3 X-ray 1.0Å A/B=18-170.
4PZ4 X-ray 1.6Å A/B=18-171.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 relocalizes 21668410
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor co-localizes with 17381240
matrix co-localizes with 21482826
Vpr downregulates 12444143
Pr55(Gag) associates with 23536680
Vpr upregulates 23874603
Vif upregulates 23333304
Tat downregulates 20139419

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04512 ECM-receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04640 Hematopoietic cell lineage - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05169 Epstein-Barr virus infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)