Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003907
UniProt IDO15382
Primary gene name(s)BCAT2
Synonym gene name(s)BCATM, BCT2, ECA40
Protein nameBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Protein functionCatalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
Subcellular locationIsoform A: Mitochondrion.;
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O15382
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aspartate biosynthetic process [GO:0006532];
branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic process [GO:0009082];
branched-chain amino acid catabolic process [GO:0009083];
isoleucine catabolic process [GO:0006550];
leucine biosynthetic process [GO:0009098];
regulation of hormone levels [GO:0010817];
valine biosynthetic process [GO:0009099]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase activity [GO:0004084];
L-isoleucine transaminase activity [GO:0052656];
L-leucine transaminase activity [GO:0052654];
L-valine transaminase activity [GO:0052655]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction107062
Phylogenetic treeO15382
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7439912441604340.02564576924348510.0571540786689053
AZA vs. DISU-0.1730426995151450.5283639158773290.940949166421897
AZA vs. IL70.317529584190290.10379608880160.846669019161012
AZA vs. SAHA-0.08301480491117770.7361261273978070.926874494071635
DISU vs. CD3-0.9287218306955670.01252255007617510.0350148246797001
DISU vs. IL70.4804306127486520.05977347106911510.322304320475359
DISU vs. SAHA0.09285353554775770.7519559907401760.929932437448022
DMSO vs. AZA0.05847036392358240.7322760577493921
DMSO vs. CD3-0.6970070431414010.03155513772144710.0654971272766053
DMSO vs. DISU0.2294976363240540.3517036088343970.844581779081597
DMSO vs. IL70.266472672136180.1438218199099420.645825591548785
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1461234018416920.5389221244617220.83276343269418
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1415602969661560.8214969059497420.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.08100215683770410.6317080826816290.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.4214606642820470.1924894280828410.313190106810521
SAHA vs. CD3-0.8495451767135230.01784784133818680.041843025663733
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4018824732341140.1019853262401140.290659897253513
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3693 0.04066

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.145843 0.427615
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.997 0.909 0.902 0.906 0.755
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00167 L-Isoleucine approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB02142 Pyridoxamine-5&,39;-Phosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB02635 N-[O-Phosphono-Pyridoxyl]-Isoleucine experimental unknown unknown
DB04074 Alpha-ketoisovalerate experimental unknown unknown
DB00114 Pyridoxal Phosphate nutraceutical unknown cofactor
DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00149 L-Leucine approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1EKF X-ray 1.9Å A/B=28-392.
1EKP X-ray 2.5Å A/B=28-392.
1EKV X-ray 2.2Å A/B=28-392.
1KT8 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=28-392.
1KTA X-ray 1.9Å A/B=28-392.
2A1H X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
2HDK X-ray 2.4Å A/B=28-392.
2HG8 X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
2HGW X-ray 1.9Å A/B=28-392.
2HGX X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
2HHF X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
5BWR X-ray 2.2Å A/B=28-392.
5BWT X-ray 2.2Å A/B=28-392.
5BWU X-ray 2.1Å A/B=28-392.
5BWV X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
5BWW X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
5BWX X-ray 1.7Å A/B=28-392.
5CR5 X-ray 1.6Å A/B=28-392.
5HNE X-ray 2.0Å A/B=28-392.
5I5S X-ray 2.0Å A/B=28-392.
5I5T X-ray 2.3Å A/B=28-392.
5I5U X-ray 2.4Å A/B=28-392.
5I5V X-ray 1.9Å A/B=28-392.
5I5W X-ray 2.4Å A/B=28-392.
5I5X X-ray 1.6Å A/B=28-392.
5I5Y X-ray 1.8Å A/B=28-392.
5I60 X-ray 2.1Å A/B=28-392.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00290 Valine# leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00770 Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01210 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)