Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003902
UniProt IDQ07812
Primary gene name(s)BAX
Synonym gene name(s)BCL2L4
Protein nameApoptosis regulator BAX
Protein functionAccelerates programmed cell death by binding to, and antagonizing the apoptosis repressor BCL2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein. Under stress conditions, undergoes a conformation change that causes translocation to the mitochondrion membrane, leading to the release of cytochrome c that then triggers apoptosis. Promotes activation of CASP3, and thereby apoptosis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10772918, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16113678, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18948948, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21199865, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8358790, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8521816}.
Subcellular locationIsoform Alpha: Mitochondrion membrane;
Single-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Colocalizes with 14-3-3 proteins in the cytoplasm. Under stress conditions, undergoes a conformation change that causes release from JNK-phosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins and translocation to the mitochondrion membrane.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform Beta: Cytoplasm.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform Gamma: Cytoplasm.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform Delta: Cytoplasm {ECO:0000305}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q07812
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process [GO:0006919];
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c [GO:0008635];
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097296];
activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response [GO:0006987];
apoptotic mitochondrial changes [GO:0008637];
apoptotic process [GO:0006915];
apoptotic process involved in embryonic digit morphogenesis [GO:1902263];
apoptotic process involved in patterning of blood vessels [GO:1902262];
apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097190];
B cell apoptotic process [GO:0001783];
B cell homeostasis [GO:0001782];
B cell homeostatic proliferation [GO:0002358];
B cell negative selection [GO:0002352];
B cell receptor apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:1990117];
blood vessel remodeling [GO:0001974];
cellular response to UV [GO:0034644];
cerebral cortex development [GO:0021987];
development of secondary sexual characteristics [GO:0045136];
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest [GO:0006977];
ectopic germ cell programmed cell death [GO:0035234];
endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis [GO:0032469];
establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient [GO:0010248];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097191];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:0097192];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors [GO:0008625];
fertilization [GO:0009566];
germ cell development [GO:0007281];
glycosphingolipid metabolic process [GO:0006687];
homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue [GO:0048873];
hypothalamus development [GO:0021854];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097193];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by p53 class mediator [GO:0072332];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage [GO:0008630];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress [GO:0070059];
kidney development [GO:0001822];
mitochondrial fragmentation involved in apoptotic process [GO:0043653];
mitochondrial fusion [GO:0008053];
mitochondrion morphogenesis [GO:0070584];
myeloid cell homeostasis [GO:0002262];
negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001234];
negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration [GO:0032471];
negative regulation of fibroblast proliferation [GO:0048147];
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043524];
negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033137];
negative regulation of protein binding [GO:0032091];
neuron apoptotic process [GO:0051402];
neuron migration [GO:0001764];
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth [GO:0042475];
ovarian follicle development [GO:0001541];
positive regulation of apoptotic DNA fragmentation [GO:1902512];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of apoptotic process involved in mammary gland involution [GO:0060058];
positive regulation of B cell apoptotic process [GO:0002904];
positive regulation of developmental pigmentation [GO:0048087];
positive regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response [GO:1900103];
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:2001241];
positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001244];
positive regulation of IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response [GO:1903896];
positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:1901030];
positive regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO:0043525];
positive regulation of protein oligomerization [GO:0032461];
positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria [GO:0090200];
positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol [GO:0051281];
post-embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO:0048597];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0001844];
protein oligomerization [GO:0051259];
regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0042981];
regulation of mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation [GO:0033599];
regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in programmed necrotic cell death [GO:1902445];
regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential [GO:0051881];
regulation of nitrogen utilization [GO:0006808];
regulation of protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0043497];
regulation of protein homodimerization activity [GO:0043496];
release of cytochrome c from mitochondria [GO:0001836];
release of matrix enzymes from mitochondria [GO:0032976];
response to axon injury [GO:0048678];
response to gamma radiation [GO:0010332];
response to salt stress [GO:0009651];
response to toxic substance [GO:0009636];
retina development in camera-type eye [GO:0060041];
retinal cell programmed cell death [GO:0046666];
Sertoli cell proliferation [GO:0060011];
spermatid differentiation [GO:0048515];
T cell homeostatic proliferation [GO:0001777];
thymocyte apoptotic process [GO:0070242];
vagina development [GO:0060068];
viral process [GO:0016032]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
BH3 domain binding [GO:0051434];
channel activity [GO:0015267];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
lipid binding [GO:0008289];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
BAX complex [GO:0097144];
Bcl-2 family protein complex [GO:0097136];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex [GO:0005757];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nuclear envelope [GO:0005635];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
pore complex [GO:0046930]
Protein-protein interaction107057
Phylogenetic treeQ07812
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.7023146732526820.03301051453021210.0704324001980969
AZA vs. DISU-0.2197464891469480.3849028598583850.900516174065699
AZA vs. IL7-0.04827655351047950.8130485520893580.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.8448363829117480.000925386129425720.0197512765176782
DISU vs. CD30.4692138832198340.1991053286282990.317464959143534
DISU vs. IL70.1619559930283380.5217029472104960.838442729797147
DISU vs. SAHA-0.6219838984607040.03464068867441080.225321458356515
DMSO vs. AZA-0.2460620377576950.1410648378809661
DMSO vs. CD30.4450829114233590.1659633058224350.257437932682762
DMSO vs. DISU-0.02795629175288170.9086557991979740.988283279918411
DMSO vs. IL70.2050050210286270.2544159896130.757669111698137
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.6038627526374480.01093476840274920.0954427357972004
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.109737407356320.8601534192095510.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1534543453784420.4809047257915240.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.6595160154679790.04063448084021770.0926601406512256
SAHA vs. CD3-0.1656778637885360.6387017327886790.730014039675798
SAHA vs. IL7-0.7984026902408580.002608167643611050.0239728774754835
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.487 0.04208

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.676842 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.998 1.063 1.158 1.197 1.228
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1F16 NMR - A=1-192.
2G5B X-ray 2.3Å I/J/K/L=13-19.
2K7W NMR - A=1-192.
2LR1 NMR - A=1-192.
3PK1 X-ray 2.4Å B/D=48-81.
3PL7 X-ray 2.6Å C=48-81.
4BD2 X-ray 2.2Å A=1-171.
4BD6 X-ray 2.4Å A=1-171# C=48-81.
4BD7 X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=1-171.
4BD8 X-ray 2.2Å A/B/C/D=1-171.
4BDU X-ray 3.0Å A/B/C/D=53-128.
4S0O X-ray 1.9Å A/B=1-192.
4S0P X-ray 3.2Å A/B=1-192.
4UF2 X-ray 3.0Å B=50-77.
4ZIE X-ray 1.8Å A=1-166.
4ZIF X-ray 2.4Å A=1-166.
4ZIG X-ray 2.2Å A=1-166.
4ZIH X-ray 2.5Å A=1-164.
4ZII X-ray 2.1Å A=1-170.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr enhanced by 10620603
retropepsin cleaves 24886575
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 10942389
Vpu upregulates 21521785
Vpr downregulates 9449720
Tat activates 18719392
Vpr upregulates 11437653
Tat upregulates 11994280
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 11602639
retropepsin interacts with 24886575
Vpr mediated by 17140287
Tat interacts with 16235026

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01521 EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01522 Endocrine resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01524 Platinum drug resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04071 Sphingolipid signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04115 p53 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04141 Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04211 Longevity regulating pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04215 Apoptosis - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04722 Neurotrophin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04932 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04933 AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05014 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05020 Prion diseases - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05152 Tuberculosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05161 Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05200 Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05210 Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)