Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003898
UniProt IDQ16611
Primary gene name(s)BAK1
Synonym gene name(s)BAK, BCL2L7, CDN1
Protein nameBcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
Protein functionIn the presence of an appropriate stimulus, accelerates programmed cell death by binding to, and antagonizing the anti-apoptotic action of BCL2 or its adenovirus homolog E1B 19k protein. Low micromolar levels of zinc ions inhibit the promotion of apoptosis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17157251, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8521816}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion membrane {ECO:0000305};
Single-pass membrane protein {ECO:0000305}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q16611
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity [GO:0097202];
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c [GO:0008635];
activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response [GO:0006987];
aging [GO:0007568];
animal organ regeneration [GO:0031100];
apoptotic process involved in patterning of blood vessels [GO:1902262];
apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:0097190];
B cell apoptotic process [GO:0001783];
B cell homeostasis [GO:0001782];
B cell negative selection [GO:0002352];
blood vessel remodeling [GO:0001974];
brain development [GO:0007420];
cell proliferation [GO:0008283];
cellular response to mechanical stimulus [GO:0071260];
cellular response to UV [GO:0034644];
cytolysis [GO:0019835];
endocrine pancreas development [GO:0031018];
endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis [GO:0032469];
establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient [GO:0010248];
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand [GO:0097192];
fibroblast apoptotic process [GO:0044346];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage [GO:0008630];
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress [GO:0070059];
limb morphogenesis [GO:0035108];
mitochondrial fusion [GO:0008053];
myeloid cell homeostasis [GO:0002262];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration [GO:0032471];
negative regulation of gene expression [GO:0010629];
negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0033137];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of calcium ion transport into cytosol [GO:0010524];
positive regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response [GO:1900103];
positive regulation of IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response [GO:1903896];
positive regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:1901030];
positive regulation of proteolysis [GO:0045862];
positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria [GO:0090200];
post-embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO:0048597];
regulation of cell cycle [GO:0051726];
regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability [GO:0046902];
regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential [GO:0051881];
regulation of protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0043497];
regulation of protein homodimerization activity [GO:0043496];
release of cytochrome c from mitochondria [GO:0001836];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to ethanol [GO:0045471];
response to fungus [GO:0009620];
response to gamma radiation [GO:0010332];
response to hydrogen peroxide [GO:0042542];
response to mycotoxin [GO:0010046];
response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0014070];
response to UV-C [GO:0010225];
thymocyte apoptotic process [GO:0070242];
vagina development [GO:0060068]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
ion channel binding [GO:0044325];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
integral component of mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0031307];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
pore complex [GO:0046930]
Protein-protein interaction107054
Phylogenetic treeQ16611
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.6143153086855980.0617911616456750.118608811554204
AZA vs. DISU0.02910421117193290.9088843605778520.994259558276858
AZA vs. IL70.2108166113607820.2766598697358280.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.05513480362653990.8224570203974910.956625255596125
DISU vs. CD3-0.5966583291421070.1015730406295680.188647852149408
DISU vs. IL70.1717043584471530.4980672408217060.824732387454659
DISU vs. SAHA0.02854215040788110.922142459630840.98235467118717
DMSO vs. AZA0.01948662579545220.9084626605402231
DMSO vs. CD3-0.6065188648735130.05895038362826410.110637539474249
DMSO vs. DISU-0.01156514297229340.9623644269914890.994294013509907
DMSO vs. IL70.1985798738080190.2734086143693690.769823470604826
DMSO vs. SAHA0.0307227921115590.8969334020028930.975026503245809
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.0627066347257130.9199787306637240.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04504036707308070.7869331253930890.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3978853928374970.216425095096570.342413714536643
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5819264150675810.1018116125061920.176437557551555
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1571634093134550.5220852034675890.74398868945646
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.00880016 0.968681
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.905 1 1.015 1.119 0.923
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1BXL NMR - B=72-87.
2IMS X-ray 1.4Å A=16-186.
2IMT X-ray 1.4Å A=16-186.
2JBY X-ray 2.4Å B=67-92.
2JCN X-ray 1.8Å A=21-190.
2LP8 NMR - B=72-87.
2M5B NMR - A=18-186.
2XPX X-ray 2.0Å B=67-92.
2YV6 X-ray 2.5Å A=23-185.
3I1H X-ray 2.2Å B=72-87.
3QBR X-ray 2.6Å B/Y=63-96.
4D2L X-ray 2.9Å B=67-91.
4U2U X-ray 2.9Å A/B=23-186.
4U2V X-ray 2.3Å A/B/C/D=68-148.
4UF1 X-ray 2.3Å B=67-92.
5AJK X-ray 2.5Å B/D/F/H/J/L=67-92.
5FMI X-ray 1.4Å A=23-184.
5FMK X-ray 1.7Å B=63-96.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat upregulates 24739951

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa01524 Platinum drug resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04141 Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04215 Apoptosis - multiple species - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05203 Viral carcinogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05206 MicroRNAs in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)