Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003876
UniProt IDQ13535
Primary gene name(s)ATR
Synonym gene name(s)FRP1
Protein nameSerine/threonine-protein kinase ATR
Protein functionSerine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation, IR, ultraviolet light, UV, or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10597277, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10608806, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10859164, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11114888, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11418864, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11673449, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11721054, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11865061, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12526805, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12791985, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12814551, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14657349, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14729973, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14742437, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15210935, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15314022, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496423, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16260606, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21144835, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27723717, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27723720, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9427750, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9636169, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9925639}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11114888, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11721054, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11865061, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12814551, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14871897, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16260606, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18283122, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8843195}. Nucleus, PML body {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9JKK8}. Chromosome {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9JKK8}. Note=Depending on the cell type, it can also be found in PML nuclear bodies. Recruited to chromatin during S-phase. Redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q13535
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell cycle [GO:0007049];
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO:0006974];
cellular response to gamma radiation [GO:0071480];
cellular response to UV [GO:0034644];
DNA damage checkpoint [GO:0000077];
DNA repair [GO:0006281];
DNA replication [GO:0006260];
establishment of macromolecular complex localization to telomere [GO:0097695];
establishment of RNA localization to telomere [GO:0097694];
interstrand cross-link repair [GO:0036297];
multicellular organism development [GO:0007275];
negative regulation of DNA replication [GO:0008156];
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation [GO:0018105];
positive regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:0043517];
positive regulation of telomerase catalytic core complex assembly [GO:1904884];
positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase [GO:0032212];
protein autophosphorylation [GO:0046777];
protein localization to chromosome, telomeric region [GO:0070198];
regulation of cellular response to heat [GO:1900034];
regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator [GO:1901796];
replicative senescence [GO:0090399];
response to drug [GO:0042493]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
DNA binding [GO:0003677];
MutLalpha complex binding [GO:0032405];
MutSalpha complex binding [GO:0032407];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
chromosome [GO:0005694];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
PML body [GO:0016605]
Protein-protein interaction107027
Phylogenetic treeQ13535
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3307117003785810.3129612999111930.432390935215098
AZA vs. DISU-0.1429099610787210.5723069476198740.954304256505839
AZA vs. IL70.24848074542230.1969510940207740.961188685491205
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1533759300843210.5300855034399550.83775684353721
DISU vs. CD3-0.4867018716664220.1803021764139420.294429098392781
DISU vs. IL70.3830426521065050.1289139631634680.470323812848325
DISU vs. SAHA-0.01000250501691630.9726297112614970.99539181670255
DMSO vs. AZA0.003948478104790170.9812433586954241
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3398267258763610.2883582627252220.398076671437232
DMSO vs. DISU0.1446531530495580.553478289574840.923674030044315
DMSO vs. IL70.2520158233378040.1617665832665350.66823629784962
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1644690187003530.4859483737347130.806468496430312
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.08568067104652930.8910859416457420.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.07858100702758430.6349676502622970.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.07303314618947670.8201350378231650.883181783604242
SAHA vs. CD3-0.509965431080540.1495707721887920.240401206454463
SAHA vs. IL7-0.4064356582794860.09587649046957060.280251512694053
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.561041 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.974 0.982 1.041 1.047 1.104
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa03460 Fanconi anemia pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04110 Cell cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04115 p53 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05166 HTLV-I infection - Homo sapiens (human)