Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003826
UniProt IDP18850
Primary gene name(s)ATF6
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameCyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha
Protein functionTransmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum that functions as a transcription activator and initiates the unfolded protein response, UPR during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cleaved upon ER stress, the N-terminal processed cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes involved in the UPR. Binds DNA on the 5'-CCAC[GA]-3'half of the ER stress response element, ERSE, 5'-CCAAT-N(9-CCAC[GA]-3' and of ERSE II, 5'-ATTGG-N-CCACG-3'. Binding to ERSE requires binding of NF-Y to ERSE. Could also be involved in activation of transcription by the serum response factor. May play a role in foveal development and cone function in the retina. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10564271, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11158310, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11779464, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26029869}.
Subcellular locationEndoplasmic reticulum membrane;
Single-pass type II membrane protein.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Processed cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha: Nucleus. Note=Under ER stress the cleaved N-terminal cytoplasmic domain translocates into the nucleus. THBS4 promotes its nuclear shuttling.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P18850
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ATF6-mediated unfolded protein response [GO:0036500];
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response [GO:0030968];
eye development [GO:0001654];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress [GO:1990440];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in unfolded protein response [GO:0006990];
protein folding [GO:0006457];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
response to stress [GO:0006950];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351];
visual perception [GO:0007601]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
cAMP response element binding [GO:0035497];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
protein heterodimerization activity [GO:0046982];
RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000977];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713];
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0003700];
transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding [GO:0000976]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
integral component of endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0030176];
membrane [GO:0016020];
nuclear envelope [GO:0005635];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction116586
Phylogenetic treeP18850
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.8331745073784980.01142165791117840.0291923398401359
AZA vs. DISU0.008358155493965980.973662793773590.997811953897277
AZA vs. IL70.131401974379290.4952699332881740.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.304700937898330.213222099544420.581950014219189
DISU vs. CD3-0.836739983219810.02180519680581140.0552794377145646
DISU vs. IL70.114135436212350.6505999810956120.898621178342465
DISU vs. SAHA0.297014439344710.3102977042717550.693619068609396
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1014035205401890.546485812676721
DMSO vs. CD3-0.9444936830734370.003379586362164840.00984215514131324
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1111742535056950.6490624017347420.948948448618541
DMSO vs. IL70.2397795028255960.1837273404145220.69619751200937
DMSO vs. SAHA0.3982871203462930.09232476771686640.356501812518804
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.01817815552073250.9767446922248030.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.05354268518083540.7461927186193950.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6933889229640850.03162743999823680.0759229818591214
SAHA vs. CD3-0.5540591039011080.1179713445701010.198751052282998
SAHA vs. IL70.1691472821157760.4891958657690390.720360437492234
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.395108 0.00221059
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.082 0.915 0.623 0.645 0.96
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00852 Pseudoephedrine approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04141 Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05010 Alzheimer's disease - Homo sapiens (human)