Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003750
UniProt IDQ9Y6D5
Primary gene name(s)ARFGEF2
Synonym gene name(s)ARFGEP2, BIG2
Protein nameBrefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2
Protein functionPromotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1 and ARF3 and to a lower extent on ARF5 and ARF6. Promotes the activation of ARF1/ARF5/ARF6 through replacement of GDP with GTP. Involved in the regulation of Golgi vesicular transport. Required for the integrity of the endosomal compartment. Involved in trafficking from the trans-Golgi network, TGN to endosomes and is required for membrane association of the AP-1 complex and GGA1. Seems to be involved in recycling of the transferrin receptor from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. Probably is involved in the exit of GABA(A receptors from the endoplasmic reticulum. Involved in constitutive release of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 via exosome-like vesicles; the function seems to involve PKA and specifically PRKAR2B. Proposed to act as A kinase-anchoring protein, AKAP and may mediate crosstalk between Arf and PKA pathways. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12051703, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12571360, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15385626, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16477018, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17276987, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18625701, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20360857}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Membrane. Golgi apparatus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network {ECO:0000250}. Endosome {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cell projection, dendrite {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasmic vesicle {ECO:0000250}. Cell junction, synapse {ECO:0000250}. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000250}. Note=Translocates from cytoplasm to membranes upon cAMP treatment. Localized in recycling endosomes.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y6D5
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
endomembrane system organization [GO:0010256];
endosome organization [GO:0007032];
exocytosis [GO:0006887];
Golgi to plasma membrane transport [GO:0006893];
intracellular signal transduction [GO:0035556];
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production [GO:0032760];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
receptor recycling [GO:0001881];
regulation of ARF protein signal transduction [GO:0032012]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005086];
GABA receptor binding [GO:0050811];
guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005085];
protein kinase A regulatory subunit binding [GO:0034237]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
asymmetric synapse [GO:0032279];
axonemal microtubule [GO:0005879];
cell junction [GO:0030054];
cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded vesicle [GO:0016023];
cytoplasmic vesicle [GO:0031410];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
dendritic spine [GO:0043197];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
membrane [GO:0016020];
microtubule organizing center [GO:0005815];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
recycling endosome [GO:0055037];
symmetric synapse [GO:0032280];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction115815
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y6D5
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7580424867203480.02120739748467490.0488668238631739
AZA vs. DISU0.181726090565070.472413776309420.927210205381308
AZA vs. IL70.09190406534122570.632416190037330.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2195015653963590.3681968702511920.735223158321164
DISU vs. CD3-0.5895886031974560.1053091979638040.19425242903896
DISU vs. IL7-0.09845335395946960.6957037351908720.921107834885157
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4001866263457450.1699209539570460.532396163870545
DMSO vs. AZA-0.04068584601046310.8080572495203751
DMSO vs. CD3-0.8114973718287650.01163997570852760.0283885760156983
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2246266997987930.357093540080330.845695250833134
DMSO vs. IL70.1400519250665470.4358129973939840.861059100355742
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1856003392566090.4309705382617010.767233003510498
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.121730346907450.845270838031260.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04640645983350470.7784614017609570.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6577729793317850.04136324440850170.0940090746334961
SAHA vs. CD3-1.002812617540160.004921906113391380.0140879629874279
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3154951165170370.1951965570838390.426742987887134
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.128359 0.429291
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.003 0.939 1.005 1.111 0.952
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3L8N X-ray 2.8Å A=635-836.
3SWV X-ray 3.0Å A=635-836.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu interacts with 22190034

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)