Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003749
UniProt IDQ9Y6D6
Primary gene name(s)ARFGEF1
Synonym gene name(s)ARFGEP1, BIG1
Protein nameBrefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1
Protein functionPromotes guanine-nucleotide exchange on ARF1 and ARF3. Promotes the activation of ARF1/ARF3 through replacement of GDP with GTP. Involved in vesicular trafficking. Required for the maintenance of Golgi structure; the function may be independent of its GEF activity. Required for the maturaion of integrin beta-1 in the Golgi. Involved in the establishment and persistence of cell polarity during directed cell movement in wound healing. Proposed to act as A kinase-anchoring protein, AKAP and may mediate crosstalk between Arf and PKA pathways. Inhibits GAP activity of MYO9B probably through competetive RhoA binding. The function in the nucleus remains to be determined. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12571360, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15644318, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17227842, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20360857, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22084092}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network {ECO:0000250}. Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus matrix. Membrane. Note=Translocates from cytoplasm to membranes and nucleus upon cAMP treatment.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9Y6D6
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
endomembrane system organization [GO:0010256];
exocytosis [GO:0006887];
Golgi organization [GO:0007030];
negative regulation of actin filament polymerization [GO:0030837];
negative regulation of GTPase activity [GO:0034260];
neuron projection development [GO:0031175];
positive regulation of protein glycosylation in Golgi [GO:0090284];
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling [GO:0051897];
positive regulation of wound healing [GO:0090303];
protein transport [GO:0015031];
regulation of ARF protein signal transduction [GO:0032012];
regulation of establishment of cell polarity [GO:2000114]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ARF guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005086];
guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity [GO:0005085];
myosin binding [GO:0017022];
protein kinase A regulatory subunit binding [GO:0034237]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
Golgi membrane [GO:0000139];
nuclear matrix [GO:0016363];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex [GO:0030532];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction115816
Phylogenetic treeQ9Y6D6
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.291726603265540.3726510366116360.494636408966145
AZA vs. DISU0.1791527707702610.478875458119690.930587682827924
AZA vs. IL70.003989758896017370.9834242981867860.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.03539781325596550.8844792515398530.974955946804153
DISU vs. CD3-0.1252483857176920.7294747854871480.810160023379173
DISU vs. IL7-0.1838379705713230.4652905914624080.805202276094737
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1433203878532280.6227292592457960.880538602922781
DMSO vs. AZA-0.05884781146116320.725060559328681
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3621599359276980.2572617855106830.364184250960199
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2399455588861810.3254660356257660.826705104750619
DMSO vs. IL70.07011000953045460.6962680701624490.93771621799729
DMSO vs. SAHA0.08655083493625370.7131783172062180.914162443665663
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.04454882443187390.9432751665269070.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04941357611451810.7642210788978880.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2788808474505930.3849302792517840.521559012799486
SAHA vs. CD3-0.2823162002379080.4238361899243310.538369132009412
SAHA vs. IL70.02677405685398170.9123419864729560.966793891324664
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.199172 0.209214
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.946 1.05 1.147 1.214 1.122
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3LTL X-ray 2.2Å A/B=691-889.
5EE5 X-ray 2.2Å A=1-229.
5J5C X-ray 3.4Å B=1-224.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpu interacts with 22190034

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)