Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003710
UniProt IDP63010
Primary gene name(s)AP2B1
Synonym gene name(s)ADTB2, CLAPB1
Protein nameAP-2 complex subunit beta
Protein functionComponent of the adaptor protein complex 2, AP-2. Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport vesicles in different membrane traffic pathways. Adaptor protein complexes are vesicle coat components and appear to be involved in cargo selection and vesicle formation. AP-2 is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which cargo proteins are incorporated into vesicles surrounded by clathrin, clathrin-coated vesicles, CCVs which are destined for fusion with the early endosome. The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components. Clathrin-associated adaptor protein, AP complexes which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes are considered to be the major clathrin adaptors contributing the CCV formation. AP-2 also serves as a cargo receptor to selectively sort the membrane proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. AP-2 seems to play a role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes from the presynaptic surface. AP-2 recognizes Y-X-X-[FILMV], Y-X-X-Phi and [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] endocytosis signal motifs within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-2 may also play a role in maintaining normal post-endocytic trafficking through the ARF6-regulated, non-clathrin pathway. The AP-2 beta subunit acts via its C-terminal appendage domain as a scaffolding platform for endocytic accessory proteins; at least some clathrin-associated sorting proteins, CLASPs are recognized by their [DE]-X(1,2-F-X-X-[FL]-X-X-X-R motif. The AP-2 beta subunit binds to clathrin heavy chain, promoting clathrin lattice assembly; clathrin displaces at least some CLASPs from AP2B1 which probably then can be positioned for further coat assembly. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14745134, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14985334, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15473838, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19033387}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14530274}. Membrane, coated pit {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14530274};
Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14530274};
Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14530274}. Note=AP-2 appears to be excluded from internalizing CCVs and to disengage from sites of endocytosis seconds before internalization of the nascent CCV.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P63010
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II [GO:0019886];
aorta development [GO:0035904];
clathrin coat assembly [GO:0048268];
clathrin-dependent endocytosis [GO:0072583];
coronary vasculature development [GO:0060976];
ephrin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048013];
intracellular protein transport [GO:0006886];
microtubule-based movement [GO:0007018];
negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0042059];
regulation of defense response to virus by virus [GO:0050690];
ventricular septum development [GO:0003281];
Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway [GO:0060071]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
clathrin binding [GO:0030276];
protein transporter activity [GO:0008565];
signal sequence binding [GO:0005048]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
AP-2 adaptor complex [GO:0030122];
clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030669];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endocytic vesicle membrane [GO:0030666];
endolysosome membrane [GO:0036020];
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO:0043231];
membrane [GO:0016020];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
trans-Golgi network [GO:0005802]
Protein-protein interaction106672
Phylogenetic treeP63010
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.4024168608832360.2211948143205040.329790111923894
AZA vs. DISU0.1468838920520530.5775414425374150.954425216186552
AZA vs. IL70.07894842990223390.6803447453572870.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1229904665672350.6132716129160690.874185885581222
DISU vs. CD30.5366077109804220.1469502741598880.251890883862424
DISU vs. IL7-0.07708569062253740.7676728015828490.945644509517985
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2681293831901810.3593147335712140.735265763700172
DMSO vs. AZA0.03460558614135320.8356859233065781
DMSO vs. CD30.4255896426438820.1846119508573590.280577289319205
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1142138382845450.6561139643949010.950002654032543
DMSO vs. IL70.05161126539935270.7733060425930120.953700815775867
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1641437418873880.4853064041684320.806311632369356
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1081342909484370.8623769448352290.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.08452738918456420.6070482155207430.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.488751429221370.1295159688026010.231275227788367
SAHA vs. CD30.255091513253780.4719298997777090.583284145792675
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2051032612863630.3987016218792470.646031409676825
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0506783 0.784822
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.013 1.017 1.133 1.093 1.058
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1E42 X-ray 1.7Å A/B=701-937.
2G30 X-ray 1.6Å A=701-937.
2IV8 X-ray 2.8Å A=700-937.
2IV9 X-ray 1.9Å A/B=700-937.
2JKR X-ray 2.9Å B/E=1-591.
2JKT X-ray 3.4Å B/E=1-591.
2VGL X-ray 2.5Å B=1-591.
2XA7 X-ray 3.1Å B=1-592.
4UQI X-ray 2.7Å B=1-651.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Nef co-localizes with 11285224
Pr55(Gag) binds 16139856
Nef interacts with 17267500
Nef binds 9811611
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 interacts with 17108326
Tat upregulates 22632162
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 requires 26269175
Tat interacts with 15020715

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04144 Endocytosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04721 Synaptic vesicle cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04961 Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05016 Huntington's disease - Homo sapiens (human)