Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003647
UniProt IDP49189
Primary gene name(s)ALDH9A1
Synonym gene name(s)ALDH4, ALDH7, ALDH9
Protein name4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase
Protein functionConverts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10702312}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P49189
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
carnitine biosynthetic process [GO:0045329];
cellular aldehyde metabolic process [GO:0006081];
hormone metabolic process [GO:0042445];
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process [GO:0042136];
oxidation-reduction process [GO:0055114]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
1-pyrroline dehydrogenase activity [GO:0033737];
3-chloroallyl aldehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO:0004028];
4-trimethylammoniobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO:0047105];
aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD activity [GO:0004029];
amine binding [GO:0043176];
aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO:0019145];
NAD binding [GO:0051287]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062]
Protein-protein interaction106725
Phylogenetic treeP49189
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.2316156763982120.4846676198900590.603059391347651
AZA vs. DISU-0.07385918976429120.7709472572039720.976444104025318
AZA vs. IL7-0.06289636057227230.744406825206320.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2900976599076720.2359014725188410.60736138323814
DISU vs. CD30.1462994576395860.6876476878003230.780618607292987
DISU vs. IL70.001508244699975770.9952337166194150.999957156847617
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2146380032564030.4621319019285440.800119649301005
DMSO vs. AZA-0.07372469222552220.6614957226319961
DMSO vs. CD30.1480676164651040.6476180233250910.737349181748449
DMSO vs. DISU-0.001329893150818690.9956620524738960.998967462308944
DMSO vs. IL70.01781711365040020.9213683037616850.983658430905595
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2230977992246020.3454890240914070.696692059337662
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.06705432840493310.9141864859991390.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.003387577035814490.9836955988307590.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.1757038282378930.588261420921020.706804655045239
SAHA vs. CD3-0.08232770971570690.8171983127141420.870515202700369
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2297187549161050.3467603828614970.596152601648519
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.274364 0.0380012
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.045 0.985 1.136 1.247 1.021
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00053 Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00310 Lysine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00340 Histidine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00380 Tryptophan metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00410 beta-Alanine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00561 Glycerolipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)