Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003645
UniProt IDQ02252
Primary gene name(s)ALDH6A1
Synonym gene name(s)MMSDH
Protein nameMethylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrial
Protein functionPlays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q02252
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
branched-chain amino acid catabolic process [GO:0009083];
brown fat cell differentiation [GO:0050873];
thymine catabolic process [GO:0006210];
thymine metabolic process [GO:0019859];
valine catabolic process [GO:0006574];
valine metabolic process [GO:0006573]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD activity [GO:0004029];
fatty-acyl-CoA binding [GO:0000062];
malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, acetylating activity [GO:0018478];
methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, acylating activity [GO:0004491];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
thiolester hydrolase activity [GO:0016790]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654]
Protein-protein interaction110472
Phylogenetic treeQ02252
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.892783605013770.01638231991728810.0395367149644504
AZA vs. DISU-0.7379702284624640.004373916066456320.171698986421257
AZA vs. IL7-0.2655629923008190.1759611090552060.942858797294389
AZA vs. SAHA0.3061783712434040.2146823082938420.582979844212103
DISU vs. CD31.142807507451870.1745057292108730.28695313211789
DISU vs. IL70.4625666346564890.07349059182831420.36050849887085
DISU vs. SAHA1.045241278172090.0004348748414290120.0112805485975501
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01258472023027780.9415320240904621
DMSO vs. CD31.867676348881770.01837786979483390.0416648018749696
DMSO vs. DISU0.7231952201891520.003733646451167690.130851283765342
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2458103291450310.1810222744705320.691213472047435
DMSO vs. SAHA0.312726863804130.1893144324362910.524477538832232
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.08224282311437450.9581106582719020.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02610956096159930.8765831853280340.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.635319670931530.0362137621192540.0846672927599682
SAHA vs. CD32.174456466109670.007588816081753990.0203602382681205
SAHA vs. IL70.5683113384077740.02172066893591330.105889136758355
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.722005 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.057 0.862 1.097 1.18 0.922
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00410 beta-Alanine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00562 Inositol phosphate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00640 Propanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)