Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003644
UniProt IDP30038
Primary gene name(s)ALDH4A1
Synonym gene name(s)ALDH4, P5CDH
Protein nameDelta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Protein functionIrreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, P5C, derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22516612}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion matrix.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P30038
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
4-hydroxyproline catabolic process [GO:0019470];
glutamate biosynthetic process [GO:0006537];
proline biosynthetic process [GO:0006561];
proline catabolic process [GO:0006562];
proline catabolic process to glutamate [GO:0010133];
proline metabolic process [GO:0006560]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003842];
aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD activity [GO:0004029];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759]
Protein-protein interaction114208
Phylogenetic treeP30038
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.2885092394357680.6924398532257630.780003996100052
AZA vs. DISU-0.9737527322630610.03150863524203770.419206679292565
AZA vs. IL70.1145717830235720.6805907814232530.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.06012906207821990.8372139483835420.961440456451378
DISU vs. CD3-0.6962288597792330.419932014300240.552612298871712
DISU vs. IL71.073740489642960.01175387290672090.129619337285163
DISU vs. SAHA0.9134087092013740.03576633134427080.230356572516882
DMSO vs. AZA0.027085194359730.9090683134008021
DMSO vs. CD30.3012274537470430.663545089618510.751069246086516
DMSO vs. DISU0.9955553362706520.01177416812777020.231338609759449
DMSO vs. IL70.09597496261791450.6401481806237290.921978745576068
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.08991192608185850.7268329520173030.919640918947476
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.191600729330880.8936159294230840.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.04991377819470470.8013367854852710.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.4057154979961990.5561913944189730.678729235313089
SAHA vs. CD30.2031109906483170.7712886067682880.836510925080827
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1762082235505850.5046509624975990.732086287045405
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.3373 0.04825

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.395658 0.00746735
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.056 1.061 1.304 1.458 1.318
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3V9G X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D=18-563.
3V9H X-ray 2.4Å A/B/C/D=18-563.
3V9I X-ray 2.8Å A/B/C/D=18-563.
4OE5 X-ray 1.9Å A/B/C/D=18-563.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00250 Alanine# aspartate and glutamate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)