Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003643
UniProt IDO94788
Primary gene name(s)ALDH1A2
Synonym gene name(s)RALDH2
Protein nameRetinal dehydrogenase 2
Protein functionRecognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O94788
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthetic process [GO:0042904];
anterior/posterior pattern specification [GO:0009952];
blood vessel development [GO:0001568];
cardiac muscle tissue development [GO:0048738];
cellular response to retinoic acid [GO:0071300];
determination of bilateral symmetry [GO:0009855];
embryonic camera-type eye development [GO:0031076];
embryonic digestive tract development [GO:0048566];
embryonic forelimb morphogenesis [GO:0035115];
face development [GO:0060324];
heart morphogenesis [GO:0003007];
hindbrain development [GO:0030902];
kidney development [GO:0001822];
liver development [GO:0001889];
lung development [GO:0030324];
midgut development [GO:0007494];
morphogenesis of embryonic epithelium [GO:0016331];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
neural crest cell development [GO:0014032];
neural tube development [GO:0021915];
neuron differentiation [GO:0030182];
pancreas development [GO:0031016];
pituitary gland development [GO:0021983];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of gene expression [GO:0010628];
proximal/distal pattern formation [GO:0009954];
regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO:0001936];
response to cytokine [GO:0034097];
response to estradiol [GO:0032355];
response to vitamin A [GO:0033189];
retinal metabolic process [GO:0042574];
retinoic acid biosynthetic process [GO:0002138];
retinoic acid metabolic process [GO:0042573];
retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048384];
retinol metabolic process [GO:0042572];
ureter maturation [GO:0035799];
vitamin A metabolic process [GO:0006776]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
unknown
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
unknown
Protein-protein interaction114379
Phylogenetic treeO94788
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DISU vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISUunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latencyunknownunknownunknown
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
NOTEST 1.9533 1
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.989 0.714 0.62 0.608 0.758
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00162 Vitamin A approved, nutraceutical, vet_approved unknown unknown
DB00755 Tretinoin approved, investigational, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
4X2Q X-ray 2.9Å A/B/C/D=21-518.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00830 Retinol metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
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