Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003638
UniProt IDP13716
Primary gene name(s)ALAD
Synonym gene name(s)unknown
Protein nameDelta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase
Protein functionCatalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles. Binds two molecules of 5-aminolevulinate per subunit, each at a distinct site, and catalyzes their condensation to form porphobilinogen. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11032836, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19812033}.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P13716
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular response to interleukin-4 [GO:0071353];
cellular response to lead ion [GO:0071284];
heme biosynthetic process [GO:0006783];
protein homooligomerization [GO:0051260];
protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process [GO:0006782];
response to activity [GO:0014823];
response to aluminum ion [GO:0010044];
response to amino acid [GO:0043200];
response to arsenic-containing substance [GO:0046685];
response to cadmium ion [GO:0046686];
response to cobalt ion [GO:0032025];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to ethanol [GO:0045471];
response to fatty acid [GO:0070542];
response to glucocorticoid [GO:0051384];
response to herbicide [GO:0009635];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to ionizing radiation [GO:0010212];
response to iron ion [GO:0010039];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
response to mercury ion [GO:0046689];
response to methylmercury [GO:0051597];
response to oxidative stress [GO:0006979];
response to platinum ion [GO:0070541];
response to selenium ion [GO:0010269];
response to vitamin B1 [GO:0010266];
response to vitamin E [GO:0033197];
response to zinc ion [GO:0010043]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
catalytic activity [GO:0003824];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
lead ion binding [GO:0032791];
porphobilinogen synthase activity [GO:0004655];
zinc ion binding [GO:0008270]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106712
Phylogenetic treeP13716
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.805969942381743.49276064898207e-050.000191150648153442
AZA vs. DISU-0.05664147824202210.823209786673460.98478550430575
AZA vs. IL7-0.07659843921941760.6918952781464280.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.111277454648390.6497518003492040.892539734816999
DISU vs. CD31.737905670766447.18180471984686e-050.000425544513942498
DISU vs. IL7-0.02991306570241330.9056432642193650.982189124739072
DISU vs. SAHA0.1701883675890160.5612916006043160.856890773167305
DMSO vs. AZA0.05837569708294810.7291369891228221
DMSO vs. CD31.853912474964361.83552711265911e-059.93254883340857e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.1135910245204890.6422465048866220.9472626202031
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1279874760500010.4789797343416040.88062145175934
DMSO vs. SAHA0.04739784632533170.841314047055640.957417400056551
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1112717682562780.9057852787385130.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1417475491961760.3930698119654160.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.734949615290056.20543222409342e-050.000384282990607067
SAHA vs. CD31.89405944583034.28123670759284e-050.000227497310237744
SAHA vs. IL70.1857136690533570.4492987170643640.687993040574393
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.442908 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.053 1.02 1.22 1.425 1.103
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00855 Aminolevulinic acid approved yes inducer
DB02068 Delta-Amino Valeric Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02239 Laevulinic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02272 Porphobilinogen experimental unknown unknown
DB02878 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-4-(Aminomethyl)Heptanedioic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB04781 5-hydroxyvaleric acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02260 4-Oxosebacic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB04560 4,7-Dioxosebacic Acid experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1E51 X-ray 2.8Å A/B=1-330.
1PV8 X-ray 2.2Å A/B=1-330.
5HMS X-ray 2.8Å A/B=1-330.
5HNR X-ray 2.8Å A/B=1-330.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00860 Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)