Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003632
UniProt IDP15121
Primary gene name(s)AKR1B1
Synonym gene name(s)ALDR1
Protein nameAldose reductase
Protein functionCatalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P15121
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process [GO:0006700];
carbohydrate metabolic process [GO:0005975];
cellular response to hydrogen peroxide [GO:0070301];
cellular response to methylglyoxal [GO:0097238];
cellular response to peptide [GO:1901653];
daunorubicin metabolic process [GO:0044597];
doxorubicin metabolic process [GO:0044598];
fructose biosynthetic process [GO:0046370];
inner medullary collecting duct development [GO:0072061];
maternal process involved in female pregnancy [GO:0060135];
naphthalene metabolic process [GO:0018931];
norepinephrine metabolic process [GO:0042415];
positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade [GO:0046427];
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO:0048661];
response to stress [GO:0006950];
response to thyroid hormone [GO:0097066];
response to water deprivation [GO:0009414];
sorbitol biosynthetic process [GO:0006061];
stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade [GO:0031098];
tissue homeostasis [GO:0001894]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity [GO:0004032];
aldo-keto reductase, NADP activity [GO:0004033];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity [GO:0043795]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cell projection cytoplasm [GO:0032838];
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
mast cell granule [GO:0042629];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
paranodal junction [GO:0033010];
perinuclear region of cytoplasm [GO:0048471];
Schmidt-Lanterman incisure [GO:0043220];
Schwann cell microvillus [GO:0097454]
Protein-protein interaction106732
Phylogenetic treeP15121
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.1493855424453590.6482636562202810.743910179005406
AZA vs. DISU0.03969877978466090.8754841145426490.991771899371402
AZA vs. IL7-0.2033252498773980.2918745629343580.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.3948172985206350.1063130869472190.414691465822325
DISU vs. CD3-0.1221318679841830.735997767198380.815481963220991
DISU vs. IL7-0.2526869046998490.3165722472941310.699322340876978
DISU vs. SAHA0.3574206918570250.2204915031658510.595798696867837
DMSO vs. AZA0.01771624654760320.9160672614234941
DMSO vs. CD3-0.1448817247000110.6504554916444440.739778950749173
DMSO vs. DISU-0.0243799253397090.9205140906464520.988899823982894
DMSO vs. IL7-0.2135526080055750.2365698112025520.742358431281946
DMSO vs. SAHA0.3720488986611240.1151597514408770.403433894459661
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.03147699262769530.959727714512710.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1115100723554030.5008720995664690.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.3465597904349990.2810368637996920.417196012801523
SAHA vs. CD30.2219264127803920.5297074234580850.636425964403519
SAHA vs. IL70.5955572241921050.0148507080741180.0824528815872027
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.0804273 0.638802
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.028 0.855 1.045 1.085 0.88
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
0.76 0.0219 0.5 0.3921 -0.07 0.3774 Cell growth and proliferation at 4 hpi
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00605 Sulindac approved unknown inhibitor
DB01689 Inhibitor Idd 384 experimental unknown unknown
DB02007 alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB02020 Alrestatin experimental unknown unknown
DB02021 Fidarestat experimental unknown inhibitor
DB02101 (S,R)-fidarestat experimental unknown unknown
DB02132 [3-(4-Bromo-2-Fluoro-Benzyl)-7-Chloro-2,4-Dioxo-3,4-Dihydro-2h-Quinazolin-1-Yl]-Acetic Acid experimental unknown unknown
DB02518 N-Acetylalanine experimental unknown unknown
DB02712 Sorbinil experimental unknown inhibitor
DB02834 IDD552 experimental unknown unknown
DB02994 Hydroxydimethylarsine Oxide experimental unknown unknown
DB03461 2&,39;-Monophosphoadenosine 5&,39;-Diphosphoribose experimental unknown unknown
DB04272 Citric Acid nutraceutical, vet_approved unknown unknown
DB02383 Tolrestat withdrawn unknown inhibitor
DB05327 AS-3201 investigational unknown unknown
DB05383 pimagedine HCl investigational unknown unknown
DB07030 (5-CHLORO-2-{[(3-NITROBENZYL)AMINO]CARBONYL}PHENOXY)ACETIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB07063 {3-[(4,5,7-TRIFLUORO-1,3-BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)METHYL]-1H-INDOL-1-YL}ACETIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB07093 {3-[(5-CHLORO-1,3-BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL)METHYL]-2,4-DIOXO-3,4-DIHYDROPYRIMIDIN-1(2H)-YL}ACETIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB07139 3-[5-(3-nitrophenyl)thiophen-2-yl]propanoic acid experimental unknown unknown
DB07187 6-[(5-CHLORO-3-METHYL-1-BENZOFURAN-2-YL)SULFONYL]PYRIDAZIN-3(2H)-ONE experimental unknown unknown
DB07450 2[4-BROMO-2-FLUOROPHENYL)METHYL]-6-FLUOROSPIRO[ISOQUINOLINE-4-(1H),3&,39;-PYRROLIDINE]-1,2&,39;,3,5&,39;(2H)-TETRONE experimental unknown unknown
DB07498 4-[3-(3-NITROPHENYL)-1,2,4-OXADIAZOL-5-YL]BUTANOIC ACID experimental unknown unknown
DB08084 IDD594 experimental unknown unknown
DB08098 [5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]thio}acetic acid experimental unknown unknown
DB08449 2-(3-((4,5,7-trifluorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl)acetic acid experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1ABN X-ray 2.4Å A=2-316.
1ADS X-ray 1.6Å A=2-316.
1AZ1 X-ray 1.8Å A=2-316.
1AZ2 X-ray 2.9Å A=2-316.
1EF3 X-ray 2.8Å A/B=2-316.
1EL3 X-ray 1.7Å A=1-316.
1IEI X-ray 2.5Å A=1-316.
1MAR X-ray 1.8Å A=2-316.
1PWL X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
1PWM X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
1T40 X-ray 1.8Å A=1-316.
1T41 X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
1US0 X-ray 0.6Å A=1-316.
1X96 X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
1X97 X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
1X98 X-ray 1.3Å A=1-316.
1XGD X-ray 2.1Å A=2-316.
1Z3N X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
1Z89 X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
1Z8A X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
2ACQ X-ray 1.7Å A=2-316.
2ACR X-ray 1.7Å A=2-316.
2ACS X-ray 1.7Å A=2-316.
2ACU X-ray 1.7Å A=2-316.
2AGT X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
2DUX X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2DUZ X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2DV0 X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2F2K X-ray 1.9Å A=1-316.
2FZ8 X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2FZ9 X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2FZB X-ray 1.5Å A=6-316.
2FZD X-ray 1.0Å A=6-316.
2HV5 X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2HVN X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2HVO X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2I16 X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
2I17 X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
2IKG X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2IKH X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2IKI X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2IKJ X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2INE X-ray 1.9Å A=2-316.
2INZ X-ray 1.9Å A=2-316.
2IPW X-ray 2.0Å A=2-316.
2IQ0 X-ray 1.9Å A=2-316.
2IQD X-ray 2.0Å A=2-316.
2IS7 X-ray 1.7Å A=2-316.
2ISF X-ray 2.0Å A=2-316.
2J8T X-ray 0.8Å A=6-316.
2NVC X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2NVD X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PD5 X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PD9 X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDB X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PDC X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PDF X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDG X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2PDH X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2PDI X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDJ X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDK X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDL X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
2PDM X-ray 1.7Å A=1-316.
2PDN X-ray 1.7Å A=1-316.
2PDP X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PDQ X-ray 1.7Å A=1-316.
2PDU X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDW X-ray 1.5Å A=1-316.
2PDX X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PDY X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
2PEV X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
2PF8 X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
2PFH X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
2PZN X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
2QXW X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
2R24 X-ray 1.7Å A=1-316.
3BCJ X-ray 0.7Å A=1-316.
3DN5 X-ray 1.4Å A=1-316.
3G5E X-ray 1.8Å A=1-316.
3GHR X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
3GHS X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
3GHT X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
3GHU X-ray 1.2Å A=1-316.
3LBO X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
3LD5 X-ray 1.2Å A=1-316.
3LEN X-ray 1.2Å A=1-316.
3LEP X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
3LQG X-ray 1.3Å A=1-316.
3LQL X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
3LZ3 X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
3LZ5 X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
3M0I X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
3M4H X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
3M64 X-ray 1.3Å A=1-316.
3MB9 X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
3MC5 X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
3ONB X-ray 1.4Å A=2-316.
3ONC X-ray 1.0Å A=2-316.
3P2V X-ray 1.6Å A=1-316.
3Q65 X-ray 2.0Å A/B=1-316.
3Q67 X-ray 1.5Å A/B=1-316.
3RX2 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-316.
3RX3 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-316.
3RX4 X-ray 2.0Å A=1-316.
3S3G X-ray 1.8Å A=1-316.
3T42 X-ray 1.2Å A=1-316.
3U2C X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
3V35 X-ray 1.9Å A=1-316.
3V36 X-ray 2.0Å A=1-316.
4GCA X-ray 0.9Å A=2-316.
4GQ0 X-ray 2.1Å A=1-316.
4IGS X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4JIR X-ray 2.0Å A=1-316.
4LAU X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4LAZ X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4LB3 X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4LB4 X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4LBR X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4LBS X-ray 0.7Å A=1-316.
4NKC X-ray 1.1Å A=2-316.
4PR4 X-ray 1.0Å A=2-316.
4PRR X-ray 1.0Å A=2-316.
4PRT X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
4PUU X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
4PUW X-ray 1.1Å A=1-316.
4Q7B X-ray 1.1Å A=2-316.
4QBX X-ray 0.9Å A=1-316.
4QR6 X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
4QX4 X-ray 1.2Å A=1-316.
4QXI X-ray 0.8Å A=1-316.
4RPQ X-ray 1.2Å A=2-316.
4XZH X-ray 1.0Å A/B=1-316.
4XZI X-ray 2.4Å A=1-316.
4YS1 X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
4YU1 X-ray 1.0Å A=1-316.
5HA7 X-ray 1.6Å A/B=1-316.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00051 Fructose and mannose metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00052 Galactose metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00561 Glycerolipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)