Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003631
UniProt IDP14550
Primary gene name(s)AKR1A1
Synonym gene name(s)ALDR1, ALR
Protein nameAlcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+]
Protein functionCatalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin, DOX and daunorubicin, DAUN. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10510318, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11306097, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18276838}.
Subcellular locationunknown
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P14550
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aldehyde catabolic process [GO:0046185];
cellular aldehyde metabolic process [GO:0006081];
D-glucuronate catabolic process [GO:0042840];
glucose metabolic process [GO:0006006];
glucuronate catabolic process to xylulose 5-phosphate [GO:0019640];
glutathione derivative biosynthetic process [GO:1901687];
L-ascorbic acid biosynthetic process [GO:0019853]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity [GO:0004032];
aldo-keto reductase, NADP activity [GO:0004033];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
L-glucuronate reductase activity [GO:0047939]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
apical plasma membrane [GO:0016324];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615]
Protein-protein interaction115610
Phylogenetic treeP14550
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.7702912607672050.0192491882329510.0451203367102701
AZA vs. DISU0.1521801758505610.5480126035250970.945922590809265
AZA vs. IL70.1202132775374710.5328357206319860.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1120188407724520.6469955845567860.89172638215315
DISU vs. CD3-0.6312969275791990.08256896475365120.160516452759419
DISU vs. IL7-0.04122624672630930.8700958461752140.975360610089497
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2618075701129170.3693287573491090.740515954197429
DMSO vs. AZA0.02381437573417620.8874070204900551
DMSO vs. CD3-0.7604717110942480.01794010841768820.0408334437674549
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1309720168967970.5918828584006260.936117363978904
DMSO vs. IL70.1040832793668860.5636709604968380.902098850651192
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1407399186908170.5515693028515090.838941200974091
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1679171189624420.787132835033330.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1128743008277050.496219759057960.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.6432647211492610.04591623492127960.102199558323752
SAHA vs. CD3-0.9056989501760470.01100976898167780.0278711941128649
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2345493454249480.336714706915210.586886653553313
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.262183 0.0743741
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.043 1.045 1.232 1.308 1.041
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB03461 2&,39;-Monophosphoadenosine 5&,39;-Diphosphoribose experimental unknown unknown
DB02383 Tolrestat withdrawn unknown unknown
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown substrate
DB00997 Doxorubicin approved, investigational unknown substrate
DB00898 Ethanol approved unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2ALR X-ray 2.4Å A=2-325.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00040 Pentose and glucuronate interconversions - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00561 Glycerolipid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)