Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0003571
UniProt IDQ9NUB1
Primary gene name(s)ACSS1
Synonym gene name(s)ACAS2L, KIAA1846
Protein nameAcetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 2-like, mitochondrial
Protein functionImportant for maintaining normal body temperature during fasting and for energy homeostasis. Essential for energy expenditure under ketogenic conditions, By similarity. Converts acetate to acetyl-CoA so that it can be used for oxidation through the tricarboxylic cycle to produce ATP and CO(2. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16788062}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion matrix {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16788062}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q9NUB1
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
acetate biosynthetic process [GO:0019413];
acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:0006085];
acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from acetate [GO:0019427];
ethanol oxidation [GO:0006069];
propionate biosynthetic process [GO:0019542]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acetate-CoA ligase activity [GO:0003987];
AMP binding [GO:0016208];
ATP binding [GO:0005524]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759]
Protein-protein interaction124122
Phylogenetic treeQ9NUB1
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.248728387088570.0001733964447604430.000782933258067525
AZA vs. DISU0.3832244157853280.1304488629485290.69833582542522
AZA vs. IL7-0.3725904937383390.05342196505264330.675485988219148
AZA vs. SAHA-0.5925175750511820.01666573394850120.136236048557325
DISU vs. CD31.618277592426821.30961539503982e-059.45004426272391e-05
DISU vs. IL7-0.7649833790730580.002573383645462560.0497277287538062
DISU vs. SAHA-0.9735511972815610.001121178832053540.0225297149038385
DMSO vs. AZA0.04795006327840380.7750908929468741
DMSO vs. CD31.281363686747318.10302416484054e-050.000372625332855076
DMSO vs. DISU-0.3381363965704640.1665754822630340.674705066976617
DMSO vs. IL7-0.412773899377110.02216074222027830.304411987392303
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.6453392779929780.006906334162134380.0700690746518866
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2288685797903270.7134517112166090.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.09229367507558270.6212501189713620.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.8827744341758690.006486773947878330.0208431344524345
SAHA vs. CD30.6321218308837530.07901933116107610.144240198146194
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2234001248338070.3632174380983740.614342728874734
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3722 0.04605

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) unknown
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.420298 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.044 1.033 1.054 1.094 1.039
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00131 Adenosine monophosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown product of
DB00171 Adenosine triphosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3GLR X-ray 1.8Å B=638-649.
3GLT X-ray 2.1Å B=638-649.
3GLU X-ray 2.5Å B=638-649.
4BVE X-ray 2.0Å B=638-647.
4BVF X-ray 2.7Å B=638-647.
4BVG X-ray 2.5Å B=638-647.
4C78 X-ray 2.0Å C=638-647.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00010 Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00620 Pyruvate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00640 Propanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)